William Logan’s ‘Malabar Manual’
VED from VICTORIA INSTITUTIONS
It is foretold! The torrential flow of inexorable destiny!
The judiciary, written codes of law, equality before the law for all citizens, right to move the court against government orders including that of the English East India Company administration, the police department, security of life and property, Penal code &c. were all the legacy of the English rule in the subcontinent, which currently includes Pakistan, India and Bangladesh.
However, in current-day, all of these things are slowly being taught as something that was there in the land since times immemorial. As to what is taught in Pakistan and Bangladesh is not known to me.
QUOTE: Extract from the Governor-General's instructions to the Commissioners deputed to the Malabar Coast-
“Sixth.—The establishment of a Plan for the administration of Justice in the several Districts being a point the effectual attainment of which we have above all others at heart, we rely with confidence on your experience acquired on this side of India for your being able to determine in a satisfactory manlier on the number and constitution of the several Courts of Justice that will be necessary to ensure to the utmost possible degree (as far as the state of society there will permit) the dispensation of equal Justice to all classes of the society ; END OF QUOTE.
Actually the very preamble of the Constitution of India can be seen in the above statement. However, the Indian political leaders (many of them who do not even know to read the Constitution of India, in its original form), the corrupt officialdom and the cunning academicians of India will not allow these kinds of information to come into the possession of the people.
QUOTE: The permission of the chieftain to hunt on his territory was not required and was never sought, and the idea of an exclusive personal right to hunting privileges in certain limits is entirely foreign to the Malayali customary law. Such an idea was only imported into Malabar with English courts and English law and lawyers. There was a fundamental difference in the ideas from which originated the Malayali law of land tenure and the English law of land, and this will be considered in the chapter on the land tenures and land revenue.
This difference has never been properly understood in the courts, and the confusion and consequent strife among those interested has been very great and deplorable. END OF QUOTE.
The above quoted words very obviously might not reflect the ideas of Logan. It is more or less certainly in sync with native-land officialdoms jingoist words. Hunting privileges might not be a personal right in the forest lands. For, so many forest populations were living inside the forest. This information cannot be used to mention that ‘confusion and consequent strife’ happened due to this lack of information by the courts.
It is true that the English courts did not really understand the full satanic quality of the social communication and control over the subordinated populations via means of verbal codes. However, the native higher castes were aware of it. And they were not willing to inform the English administration about that. Even now, the native-English world does not have the least bit of information on the explosive content in feudal language verbal codes.
QUOTE: The five great crimes were—(1) murder of a Brahman ; (2) drinking spirits (probably a crime only among Brahmans, for the Nayars are not now, and never were an abstemious caste, nor were the other lower castes) ; (3) theft : “They put a thief to death”, wrote Sheikh Ibn Batuta regarding the Malayalis in the fourteenth century A.D., “for stealing a single nut, or even a grain of seed of any fruit : hence thieves are unknown among them, and should anything fall from a tree none except its proper owner would attempt to touch it.” (Ibn Batuta, Travels, Or. Transl. Committee, London, 1829, p. 167); (4) disobeying a teacher’s rules; (5) cowkilling, which is still a penal offence in the Cochin State.
QUOTE: The manner of carrying out capital punishments was sometimes barbarous in the extreme. Criminals were cut in half and exposed on a cross-bar, in the manner still adopted with tigers and panthers slain in hunting expeditions and offered as a sacrifice to local deities. Thieves were similarly cut in two and impaled on a stake, which probably had a cross-bar, as the word for it and that for an eagle or vulture are identical. But impaling alive was also known, and in June 1795, by the orders of the Palassi (Pychy) rebel chief two Mappilias were thus treated after a pretended trial for alleged robbery in a Nayar’s house at Venkad in Kottayam Taluk. END OF QUOTE.
This was the state of semi-barbarianism in the subcontinent. It might not be a aberration of a minor period. For, Sheikh Ibn Batuta has mentioned this in the 1300s. And it is seen practised by the much mentioned Pazhassiraja in the late 1700s / early 1800s.
QUOTE: And every co-defendant, except the one who, according to the woman’s statement, was the first to lead her astray, has a right to be admitted to the boiling-oil ordeal as administered at the temple of Suchindram in Travancore. If his hand is burnt, he is guilty; if it comes out clean he is judged as innocent END OF QUOTE.
This was another system of enforcing justice or punishment.
QUOTE: Extract from the Governor-General's instructions to the Commissioners deputed to the Malabar Coast-
Seventh.—The pepper produced on the Coast of Malabar constituting (as already intimated) a very material Branch of Commerce to the Honourable Company, it is our wish that a Provision on terms of perfect fairness to the natives may be effected in all the settlements for the Revenue payable to Government, so that as far as possible it may be made good in the natural pepper produce, taken at a fair market valuation instead of money payments, leaving whatever proportion cannot be secured in this way to be purchased by the Company’s commercial Agents on the spot on the footing END OF QUOTE.
In neighbouring Travancore kingdom, the farmers were forced to sell to the government warehouses, where the officials would not pay money, unless a bribe was given. In many cases, the officials would give useless other articles as a sort of barter arrangement. The farmers used to smuggle their wares into British Cochin areas, which might have included nearby Tangasherri.
QUOTE: One of the first measures of the United or Joint Commission was to proclaim1 on 20th December 1792 the general freedom of trade in all articles except pepper which was hold as a monopoly, and the Institution of “two separate courts of Equity and Justice” at Calicut on 1st January 1793, the first court to be presided over by the members in rotation, in which revenue and litigated landed claims were to be investigated, and the second to take notice “of all other subjects of claim and litigation not relating to the revenue or landed property.” END OF QUOTE.
In India (the current-day nation), this kind of freedom has vanished. Each highway moves through a series of sales tax and excise check posts, where the low-class officials wait for their prey. The modern-day avatar of the ancient Thuggees.
With regard to the above-mentioned Courts of Equity and Justice, the only thing that could throw a hammer in the works was the feudal languages of the subcontinent. Nothing would be straight-forward. For the languages and communication moved through crooked routes.
QUOTE: They further, on 9th January 1793, sent round a circular to all the chieftains charged with the collection of the Revenue of their Districts, forbidding the collection, on any pretence whatever, of any presents or cesses such as had been customarily prevalent END OF QUOTE.
This is not an easy thing to suppress. For the languages are feudal. The person who is ‘honoured’ has to be necessarily given an article of ‘homage’ (kaanikka).
QUOTE: While these Commissioners were engaged with the above-mentioned enquiries, the remaining members issued a proclamation of general amnesty for acts of homicide, maiming, robbery or theft committed prior to 1st February 1793 as a means of inducing the lawless among the population to resort to honest courses. END OF QUOTE.
That was a move based on expediency. If the various feuds and moods for vengeance and revenge that existed as a brooding mood in the subcontinent were taken into account, the justice system would break down under the huge load. Moreover, the feudal languages would go on creating more and more brooding angers each and every passing day.
QUOTE: In the Judicial Department seven local Darogas or native Judges were appointed, subordinate to the Provincial Courts of the Superintendents, viz.., at Cannanore, Quilandy, Tirurangadi, Ponnani, Palghat, Tanur and Chetwai END OF QUOTE.
The use of barbarianism and semi-barbarians as a serviceable substitute for quality judiciary was coming to an end.
See these QUOTES:
1. The Achchan in April took the law into his own hands, in spite of the terms of his engagements, by "putting to death Ullateel Veetul Canden Nayar and taking out the eyes of Parameshuaracooty Brahman”.
2. Among the privileges' recited, in a “Malabar Jenmum” deed granted by the Kolattiri Raja to the Honourable Company’s linguist at Tellicherry in October 1758 are the following : “Penalties or condemnations and customs, beginning with one principal and ending with all other things,” which was explained to the Joint Commissioners (Diary 15th February 1793) as meaning “the power of administering justice, both civil and criminal, even to the cutting off the hands of a thief.”
3. If any injustice be done to these (the Palliyar ? or Anjuwannam and Manigramam ?), they may withhold the tribute (“world-bearing hire”) and remedy themselves the injury done to them. Should they themselves commit a crime, they are themselves to have the investigation of it. [NOTE: This is like the current-day Indian Police system. They kill a person in an ‘encounter’ and if someone questions the deed, they themselves enquire into it.]
END OF QUOTE.
There is no other option other than barbarity to run a semi-barbarian social system. This continued till the English system arrived.
QUOTE: ".............. but you will not interfere with the Desavali Sthanamnana Avakasam (or such ancient privileges belonging to him as Desavali) as the Government may deem it advisable to permit to be enjoyed, and as the inhabitants may voluntarily offer in conformity with old customs.” Extract from Mr. Græme’s form of sanad appointing Adhikaris of Amsams. Special Commissioner to Principal Collector 20th May 1823. Conf. p. 89 of the text. END OF QUOTE
The replacement of the traditional Adhikaris was not easy. They held the power of killing and maiming anyone in their location from times immemorial. The feudal languages added to their power of oppression.
Even their subordinated populations would offer their ‘respect’ and veneration to them.
QUOTE: Where the mortgagee discovers that the landlord has acted fraudulently in valuing the produce of the land, he is entitled to have the deed cancelled.— (Proceedings of the Court of Sadr Adalat No. 18, dated 5th August 1856. END OF QUOTE.
These are all quite high quality jurisprudence. However, the society would be low-quality due to the feudal content in the language.
QUOTE: The following are notes of some of the voluminous and conflicting decisions of the Courts on the various points connected with kanam and kulikanam, The Courts, starting with an erroneous idea as to what jamnam was have, in their endeavours to ascertain customs, been evidently making law instead of merely declaring it, and deciding by it. END OF QUOTE.
The fact of the matter would be that the native-officials would try hard to make everything confusing. For, they did not really like to see the subordinated populations improving. For, the subordinated populations, being from the subordinated parts of the feudal vernacular, would be quite rude and crude if given leeway to improve into the locations of the higher quality populations.
QUOTE: Such a protection the custom of the country provides against the grasping avarice of proprietors, and it is only the strict preservation of this custom which can prevent this species of tenure from becoming a monstrous fraud, in which the weak will always be the prey of the strong."—S.S.C., 398 (1854) END OF QUOTE.
The English administrators were seeing the monstrous quality of the social system. However, they cannot go inside and change it. For, everyone in the social system is part of it. Simply relocating the downtrodden to the heights would only have a catastrophic effect on the social system.
QUOTE: Notes.—1- The following are a few of the Civil Courts’ rulings. —
Verumpattakkar are entitled on eviction to the value of improvements, whether these have been effected with or without the knowledge of the Kanakkar or Janmi. This is an ordinary usage in the country.—S.D.C., 40 (1854).
A tenancy expressed to be for one year is not necessarily determined at the end of the year. If the tenant remains in possession he holds as a tenant from year to year.—S.D.C , 400 (1877), 437 (1878).
Although it is not open for a tenant to deny his lessor’s title, it is open to him to show that the title has ceased.—N.D.C., 413 (1861), 73 (1862) ; S.D.C., 172 (1877).
A lessee is debarred from disputing that his lessor had no title.—S.S.C., 366 (1854). Semble: Lessor’s transferee’s lack of title.—M.S.C., 103 (1859).
Encroachments by a tenant on adjoining waste are for the benefit of the landlord, — S.D.C., 438 (1877), 559 (1877).
A tenant cannot of right claim remission on account of loss by drought.—S.D.C., 60 (1878). 133 (1878) END OF QUOTE.
There is a general feeling currently in this nation that the English administration was on a looting spree. The people imagine the native-English of those times as just a mirror reflection of themselves.
As of now, the native population of England is also changing rapidly. The entry of the immigrant populations who speak feudal languages is the worst of negativities effecting England. The native-English are unknowingly reacting to feudal language verbal codes, facial expression, body language etc. and changing /mutating.
Apart from that the influence of the USA is also there. USA is a location where the feudal language speakers from elsewhere come and enjoy all the freedoms that they cannot even imagine in their own nations. They do not represent pristine-English. They represent the unbridling that English can deliver. But the innate controls of pristine-English have not been imbibed by them.
QUOTE: 2. This lease runs only for a single year, unless otherwise specified. At the end of the year the landlord is at liberty either to renew the lease or to let the land to another tenant ; but he cannot, under any circumstances, disturb the tenant in his enjoyment until the year has expired. Where the lease is for a specified period, the tenant cannot be ejected during that period unless he endeavours to defraud the landlord or allows the rent to fall into arrears. In either of these cases, however, an action of ejectment will lie against the tenant.—(Proceedings of the Court of Sadr Adalat, Ko. 18, dated 5th August 1856). END OF QUOTE.
The courts are slowly building up a huge repository of legal content, in a location where there was none.
NOTEs: Note.—See Chapter IV, Section (a) of the Text. The records of the Courts having been searched it is believed that no suits of ejectment were in reality brought before 1856, or at any rate before 1822. The Janmi used to oust an obnoxious tenant by selling his interest in the land before 1856. END OF NOTEs
These are historical records of momentous importance of how the new administrators very systematically build up a legal system. However, in the useless academic textbooks, nonsensical speeches and processions and fights of ‘great’ ‘freedom fighters’ are described!
QUOTE: The collection of revenue is made by Mr. Brown, who also exercises petty judicial powers usually inherent in the village head. The late Mr. F. C. Brown was appointed by Government to be an Honorary Magistrate of the First Class, and the High Court was also moved to issue in his name a Commission of the Peace. (Vide G.O. No. 1315, dated 14th September 1865.)
Mr. Murdoch Brown, son of Mr. F. C. Brown, was appointed by Government, in 1869, to be an Honorary Magistrate in the Chirakkal taluk with the powers of a Subordinate Magistrate of the Second Class (G.O. No. 52, dated 12th January 1869) END OF QUOTE.
From a very perfunctory perspective, the above statement can be easily misconstrued as a replacement of native-administrators who had been doing yeoman service from times immemorial. However, that is only how a utter idiot jingoist would know it.
It has been seen mentioned in the writings of such others as Edgar Thurston, and I can personally vouch for the correctness of it, of village headmen being utterly brutal and barbarian to the lower classes. It is basically about an issue which could not be understood by the English administrators.
It was seen that the lower caste men and women and even children might at times use abusive words to and about the higher caste men, women and even children. However, what this abusive words were could not be clearly understood. For, in English the words might simply translate into harmless words, such as : Where are you going?
However, the greater information would be that in the newly emerging social scenario of the native English administration coming to supremacy, the lower castes were fast losing the ‘respect’ for the higher castes.
The words: ‘Where are you going?’ would have the problem of indicant word level of ‘you’ going down. Like from Ingalu to Inhi. If a lower caste person uses such a terribly tormenting word to even a higher caste child, it would be a very bad thing.
The higher caste man who had been negatively affected would complain to the village headman. Then the village headman would gather few ruffians from the higher castes, who would then accost the villain who had used the derogatory form of ‘you’. He would be taken to an isolated hut, and tied up and trashed up to the very inch of his life. He would remain there in that position for a few days.
Far-reaching changes were commencing in Tellicherry, wherein good quality English education was being distributed. However, when the fool in England, the dastard Clement Atlee ditched the peoples of the subcontinent, everything collapsed. And now, even those who received the goodness of good quality English education do not have any qualms in using this very English to cast disparagement on the English colonial rule.
QUOTE: The judicial administration of the Kirar territory is conducted by the officers of the British Government. The raja is merely permitted to collect rents on the lands comprised within the Kirar limits, and has no power to interfere with the collection of special rates chargeable under the municipal or fiscal law. END OF QUOTE.
This is how an incorruptible officialdom was slowly set up in the Malabar district of the Madras Presidency. I say that the officialdom, especially the officer class of this set up was incorruptible, from my own personal experience and information. At the same time, what the condition of a native-kingdom bureaucracy can be seen from this quote from Travancore State Manual.
QUOTE from Travancore: To quote the illustrious writer of the article in the Calcutta Review
“The public service from the top to the bottom consisted with few exceptions, of an army of voracious place-seekers, who having obtained their appointments by bribes, were bent upon recouping themselves a hundredfold; and peculation, torture, false accusation, pretended demands on behalf of the Sirkar, these were the instruments with which they worked out their object. Nonpayment of salaries furnished even an open pretext for these malpractices.
The courts of justice were so many seats of corruption and perversion of justice. Dacoits and marauders of the worst stamp scoured the country by hundreds; but these wore less feared by the people than the so-called Police. In short, Travancore was the veriest den of misrule, lawlessness, and callous tyranny of the worst description. END OF QUOTE
It must be mentioned that when Malabar was amalgamated with the Travancore-Cochin state to serve the vested interests of the Converted Christians of Travancore’s interests and that of the Ezhava leadership of Travancore, it is this terrible bureaucratic culture that was to infect all the official conventions of Malabar. However, these are things not many people are aware of. And of the persons who are aware of these things, not many have any concerns.
QUOTE: The Zilla Court at Calicut was established in 1803. It was abolished in 1843 to make room for a Civil Court for which was substituted a District Court under Act III of 1873. END OF QUOTE.
The emergence of quality judicial machinery at Calicut under the English rule.
1. Wandur—in the amsam of the same name, is 12 miles from Manjeri, and is the seat of a Sub-Registrar of Assurances, who is also a Special Magistrate
2. The Koduvayur Sub-Registrar exercise also magisterial powers in respect of nuisance cases arising within the Pudunagaram town.
END OF QUOTE.
The above are sample texts that denote the slow setting up of quality administrative machinery. However, the moment these things were handed over to India, the quality went down. Official behaviour went rude. Officials became exorbitantly paid. They started demanding bribes and ‘respect’. They started getting pension benefit of an astronomical scale for themselves and their dependents till their and their dependents’ death. Official became the new feudal overlords of the people.
1. That the inhabitants, residing within the limits of the said village of Tangasseri, of all castes and descriptions, whatsoever, shall continue to be under the protection of the British Government in all cases of a civil or Police nature
2. That the inhabitants of the farm of Kottadilli of all castes and descriptions whatsoever shall continue to be under the protection of the British Government and amenable to its authorities in all cases of a police or civil nature and that the British Resident is empowered by the second paragraph of the Minutes of Consultation of the Government of Fort St. George, No. 90, under date the 25th Febiuary 1847, to interfere summarily in all complaints made by the ryots against the Sirkar officers. END OF QUOTE
These were the statutory agreements made when Tangasherri and Kottadilli farms were given on lease to the Travancore kingdom. The terror of the people can be understood on going under a brutal feudal language officialdom.
In fact, Great Britain stands guilty of not enforcing such a statutory requirement when the South Asian Subcontinent was handed over to the crooks in Pakistan and India. That the people can appeal to the British government when they are being ill-treated by the Pakistani or Indian officials.
The same should have been done in the case of all the colonial lands which were handed back to barbarians by the Satan Clement Atlee and his team of blood-thirsty vampires in the British Labour Party.
Even the handing over of Hong Kong to China was a Satanic act.
QUOTE: At present he can only convey to them this property by stripping himself of it and making it over to them in free gift during his own lifetime. And this he is naturally reluctant to do for many and obvious reasons. He is in a thoroughly false position, for if he obeys his natural instincts and gives away his property during his lifetime to his wife and children, he becomes a beggar and is taken to task by his legal heirs; whereas, if he hesitates to do it, he incurs the displeasure of his own household. This false position is fatal to individual industry and thrift, and it is to be hoped that the law will soon be changed by permitting of the testamentary disposal of self-acquisitions. END OF QUOTE.
The above is about the terrific changes that came into the laws and understanding on inheritance. The terrors embedded in the Marumakkathaya (matriarchal) family system. The father of the children cannot provide for them. He can only provide for his sister’s children.
And there is the added mental burden. That there is only partial possibility that his woman’s (wife’s) children are his own, as per the native family system. For, it is the uncles and the brothers of his wife who really decide who his wife consorts with.
The following quotes are about Laccadive Islands.
QUOTE: The people are as a rule quarrelsome and litigious END OF QUOTE.
The above-mentioned quote is about the Kavaratti Island of the Laccadives. However, even if the statement is mentioned about the peoples of the subcontinent, it would not be much incorrect. However, if proper hierarchies are enforced, people don an artificial demeanour of quietude and subservience. It is connected to the feudal language codes. Nothing to do with ethics.
QUOTE: There were no prescribed rules of procedure in regard to trials or judicial proceedings and matters of importance were referred to Cannanore for orders. It was supposed that records had been kept of all such proceedings, but they were stated to be not forthcoming when demanded of the Raja by the Collector. END OF QUOTE.
I think the reference is about the minute Ali raja kingdom of Cannanore town. The issue first is that these ‘kingdoms’ are not used to keeping official records, and such other things. The main focus perpetually remains on extracting ‘respect’ from others and seeing to it that ‘respect’ is not conceded to the wrong person.
The other issue is that there was indeed a feeling that English Company officials were mere employees of some merchants in London, and hence the equivalent of ‘Inhi’/ ‘Nee’, ‘Oan’ / ‘Avan’ etc. employee level person under the native-kings.
See this QUOTE of Sultan Tippu’s words in his letter to the Chief of English Factory at Tellicherry :
I have many lakhs of people like you in my service and so have the company.” END OF QUOTE
This ego issue is at stake in various interactions with the native-English or British. For instance, Napoleon did go to the extent to calling Britain a nation of ‘shop-keepers’, trying to imagine them as equivalent to the lower class commercial people of France. It is twist of fate that he had to wait for an English ship to surrender. If he had been caught by his Continent European enemies, he would have literally been beaten to death.
There is one more ego issue. I have heard of rich landlords in Malabar refusing to meet the District Collector in the local government Rest house, when the Collector comes in to the interior villages. They would want the Collector to come to their house, where they would be greeted with great hospitality. However, the fact remains that the persons who goes to the other man’s home base gets to be reduced in stature in the eyes of others. This again is part of the feudal language codes.
QUOTE: The Kuttam (see Glossary) was no doubt a rough but most effective instrument of justice in such cases. The community simply rose and plundered (as in this instance) the guilty individual and his family, reducing them to beggary END OF QUOTE.
Though the above statement is about the Laccadive Islands, the fact remains that this is mostly the case with most interior village panchayats of yore. That is the group of persons who are in power literally reduce the others to levels of defilement with the use of lower indicant verbal codes.
As of now, the same time is slowly come back. The local self-government system in which each panchayat is having government office. The elected officials are merely jokers, who have to continually fight it out to retain their seats in the Panchayat Board. The actual power remains with the government officials who are permanent officials. They do not care much for either the people or the Panchayat Board members. In fact, it is the people’s representatives who have to be obsequious to them.
QUOTE: In the adjudication of petty civil disputes oath, arbitration and ordeal were freely employed, and oaths in the name of the raja and on the Koran were considered peculiarly solemn. END OF QUOTE.
This is again from the descriptive writings on Laccadive Islands. The fact remains that a higher level of adjudication, administration &c. are not very much practical in the India, Pakistan or Bangladesh, in the current-day social ambience of feudal languages. Every route of social thinking is made to curve and twist as per the satanic codes inside these languages.
QUOTE: The islands have been periodically visited by Covenanted European officers and a small staff of clerks, and the grievances of the people have been fairly and equitably dealt with both on the spot as well as on the mainland END OF QUOTE.
There is some malicious cunning in that the appropriate words ‘British officers’ or ‘English officers’ are seen replaced in almost all such places with the word ‘European’. Even the Christian Church was not happy with the English Company. For, their evangelical activities were prohibited inside the English ruled areas. They had their European stooges inside the English administration.
QUOTE: One amin with a gumasta (clerk) to assist him, and paid fairly well, has been appointed for each island, and has been authorised to try petty civil and criminal cases of a nature which do not involve any intricate or nice questions beyond the keen and intelligence of this class of officers. END OF QUOTE.
Under the guidance and control of the English officialdom, this system would function at quality levels much above what can be expected in such semi-barbarian social systems.
QUOTE: When society has become more complex, written laws must of course follow ; but meanwhile the enlightened despotism of the officers of Government, founded on justice and good conscience, is a form of administration which the islanders thoroughly appreciate and which they have as yet shown no wish to have changed. END OF QUOTE.
This was true of the whole of British-India.
Now let us have a comparison with the judiciary in a native-kingdom of the subcontinent, where English systems have been copied, but run by the native feudal-language speaking officials:
QUOTE from Native Life in Travancore: “Notwithstanding the civilisation that education ought to inculcate in the minds of the rulers of a State, we are sorry to say that neither time nor education seems to have worked any change in the old usages of the Tahsildars’ Cutcherries.
Parties to a suit, if they be of low caste, are not privileged to approach such places, but have to keep away at a distance of fifty or sixty paces from them, the examination of witnesses and every other proceeding of a suit being conducted at that respectable distance.
It is very amusing to watch a case of this description going on, for the Gumashta (clerk) of the cutcherry has to cry out at the top of his voice every question, and the witnesses or defendants, as the case may be, have in turn to respond to them, by as loud yells, so that all the proceedings are not only audible to those in court, but to those out of and far from it, presenting a scene more like a serious quarrel than a court of law.
The low-caste people who wish to present petitions are thus kept away from the court, and are made to stand day after day in the hot sun, their heads not being permitted to be covered, or they are exposed to merciless rain until by some chance they come to be discovered, or the Tahsildar is pleased to call for the petition.
This procedure is diametrically opposite to the distinct orders of the British Resident conveyed upon the subject several years ago, abolishing the barbarous practice in the local courts, and we hope, therefore, that the Dewan will take the necessary steps to put a stop to the invidious distinction of caste prejudice and pollution so rampant in public places of business.” END OF QUOTE.
Actually the indifference to the ordinary citizen by the officialdom has spread into India also. I have seen a lot of people, including women and children, standing in the open ground many years ago when the newly designed Election IDs were being issued. From morning till evening.
However the fact remains that it is the very members of this people who become the officials. So, it might be more correct to say that the whole set of people are crude and rude to each other.
1. My aim
5. The first impressions about the contents
7. An acute sense of not understanding
8. Entering a terrible social system
9. The doctoring and the manipulations
10. What was missed or unmentioned, or even fallaciously defined
12. Nairs / Nayars
16. Nairs / Nayars
18. The terror that perched upon the Nayars
20. Exertions of the converted Christian Church
24. About the language Malayalam
26. Misconnecting with English
27. Feudal language
30. CASTE SYSTEM
32. The Portuguese
33. The DUTCH
34. The French
35. The ENGLISH
38. Mappilla outrages against the Nayars and the Hindus
40. What is repulsive about the Muslims?
41. Hyder Ali
42. Sultan Tippu
45. Ali Raja
48. The Zamorin and other apparitions
49. The Jews
50. SOCIAL CUSTOMS
53. Pestilence, famine etc.
54. British Malabar versus Travancore kingdom
56. Revenue and administrative changes
59. Henry Valentine Conolly
60. Miscellaneous notes
61. Culture of the land
62. The English efforts in developing the subcontinent
64. Oft-mentioned objections
65. Photos and pictures of the Colonial times
66. Payment for the Colonial deeds
67. Calculating the compensation