William Logan’s ‘Malabar Manual’
VED from VICTORIA INSTITUTIONS
It is foretold! The torrential flow of inexorable destiny!
QUOTE: The Palghat Raja turned in this emergency to his neighbour on the east, and despatched in 1757 a deputation to Hyder Ali, then Foujdar of Dindigul under the nominal sovereignty of the puppet Chick Kishen Raja of Mysore desiring his assistance against the Zamorin.
Hyder Ali sent his brother-in-law Mukhdum Sahib with 2,000 horse, 5,000 infantry, and guns to assist him : and this force aided by the Palghat Nayars carried their arms as far as the sea coast. The Zamorin’s force retreated and the Zamorin bought off his opponents by agreeing to restore his Palghat conquests and by promising to pay in instalments a war indemnity of Rs. 12,00,000.END OF QUOTE.
This might be how the Mysoreans got the taste of Malabar. However, in the behind scenes a lot of treacherous and backstabbing incidences did take place on the Mysore side. This is about how Hyder Ali usurped the title of the king. Check the details in book, Malabar. QUOTE: This was the first occasion on which a Muhammadan force ever entered Malabar. END OF QUOTE
QUOTE: Reinforced by a number of the disciplined soldiers of Hyder Ali, the High Admiral, it is said, sailed for and conquered the Maldive Islands. After taking the King of the Islands prisoner, he had the barbarity to put his eyes out. END OF QUOTE.
The subcontinent was generally a semi-barbarian locations. Worse things have taken place here.
QUOTE: But Hyder Ali was so irritated at the cruelty practised on the unfortunate king by his admiral that he instantly deprived him of the command of the fleet, which he afterwards, it is said, bestowed on an Englishman named Stanet. END OF QUOTE.
It is quite interesting that an Englishman did have command on his naval fleet. It may be that he did summarise that the English have a natural affinity for the seas. However, this man’s name is not mentioned elsewhere in this book.
QUOTE: A general insinuation was given to the army to grant no quarter. END OF QUOTE.
Show no mercy! That was the military command given by the Mysorean leader. It does not seem to be Islamic at all. Hyder Ali’s as well as his son Tipp’s dispositions were totally connected to the terrific triggers of feudal languages.
QUOTE: Hyder Ali’s own army consisted it is said, of 12000 of his best troops, of which 4,000 were cavalry and the rest infantry, and his artillery consisted of only 4 pieces, but the fleet accompanied him along the coast and afforded assistance as required. END OF QUOTE.
This was the terror that entered Malabar.
QUOTE: The Kolattiri family made no resistance, for simultaneously with Hyder Ali’s advance Ali Raja and his men seized their palace at Chirakkal, and the old Tekkalankur prince with his attendants came to take refuge at the Brass Pagoda within Tellicherry limits.
They were followed by numerous refugees, fleeing probably more before the terror of the Mappilla scouts than before Hyder Ali’s army. END OF QUOTE.
The Ali Raja of that period acted like the backstabbing double-crosser in Malabar.
As to the general populace, which might mean the Hindus (Brahmins) and the Nayars, they had no protection left. Everyone were fleeing instead of fighting.
QUOTE: The factors at the same time had information that Ali Raja was all this time urging Hyder Ali to attack the factory, but to this he would not listen. END OF QUOTE.
The Ali Raja actually should have shown some gratitude to the English Company. Instead, they were out to see that they are butchered. As to why Hyder Ali did not want to attack the English Factory at Tellicherry might require some deep analysis.
QUOTE: they were led on by fifty of the French Hussars lately arrived from Pondicherry. END OF QUOTE.
Off course, the French were the full supporters of the ‘great’ ‘Indian freedom fighter Hyder Ali’ in his fight to ‘free India’ from British Colonialism!
QUOTE: He agreed not to molest the Raja of Cochin on certain conditions, but he would guarantee nothing in regard to Travancore. As there was delay in replying to his proposals he then modified his terms as regards these Rajas and demanded 4 lakhs of rupees and 8 elephants from Cochin, and 15 lakhs and 20 elephants from Travancore, in default of receiving which, he said, he meant to visit those countries. In reply to this demand, the Cochin Raja placed himself unreservedly in the Dutch Company’s hands, but the Travancore Raja, strong in the assurance of English support, replied that Hyder Ali had not commenced the war to please him or with his advice, that therefore he objected, to contribute anything, that moreover he was already tributary to the Nawab Muhammad Ali and could not afford to subsidise two suzerains at the same time, but that he would contribute a considerable sum if Hyder Ali would reinstate the Kolattiri and the Zamorin, and ended by suggesting to the Dutch to do the same. END OF QUOTE.
King Marthanda Varma had assessed the English Company correctly. That they would stand by their word. However, that was because the idiots in the British Labour Party had no control over the English Company.
QUOTE: 1. When the river was at the lowest he (Hyder Ali) entered it full gallop at the head of his cavalry which he had till then kept out of sight of the Nayars
2. They (the Nayars) were frightened at the sudden appearance of the cavalry and fled with the utmost precipitation and disorder without making any other defence but that of discharging a few cannon which they were too much intimidated to point properly. END OF QUOTE.
QUOTE: “Hyder foreseeing this event, had given orders to pursue the fugitives full speed, cutting down all they could overtake, without losing time either by taking prisoners or securing plunder. END OF QUOTE.
That was about the Nayars mentioned above. Then the Nayars, mentioned in the local fake histories as great exponents of Kalari (a kind of fabulous martial arts of unknown origin, practised traditionally in certain Kalari training centres of north Malabar) etc. had no answer for the barbarity that was let loose by the Mysoreans.
QUOTE: and the 300 Europeans lately arrived from Pondicherry and Colombo, were offered parasols as they did not choose to quit their habits END OF QUOTE.
Continental Europeans arriving to support Hyder Ali endeavours and to seek revenge on England!
QUOTE: corps was commanded by a Portuguese Lieutenant-Colonel lately arrived from Goa, with different officers of his nation. The left wing, composed of topasses, was commanded by an English officer, and Hyder himself commanded the main body, having behind him a reserve of Europeans, almost all French, with whom were joined those who are called the Bara Audmees or great men, a corps composed of all the young nobility and courtiers, without excepting even the generals who have not appointed posts or commands on the day of battle. END OF QUOTE.
Horror of horror! There was even an Englishman on Hyder’s side. Could it be the Stanet, mentioned earlier? Now, does that not involve England in this raid? For, if a single Englishman’s name is mentioned with regard to any wrong deed anywhere in the world, the great birdbrains would use it to put the full responsibility on pristine-England. Here England is also seen as part of the great ‘Indian’ ‘freedom fighters’ against Britain!!!
QUOTE: Hyder answered that he might do as he thought proper ; and he immediately joined his troop, which was impatient for the combat and burned with a desire to revenge the French who were inhumanly massacred at Pondiaghari.
Headed by this active and courageous officer, and joined by the Bara Audmees, they ran with violent eagerness to the attack. The intervals between the battalions of sepoys afforded them a passage : they jumped into the ditch, and hastily ascending the retrenchments tore up the pallisades, and were in the face of the enemy in an instant. They gave no quarter ; and the enemy, astonished to the last degree at their impetuosity and rage, suffered themselves to be butchered even without resistance.
The flames of the village on fire, and the direction of the cannon now pointed on the distracted Nayars, evinced to Hyder that the village was carried. The whole army in consequence moved to attack the retrenchment ; but the enemy perceiving that Hyder’s troops had stormed their outpost, and catching the affright of the fugitives, fled from their camp with disorder and precipitation. END OF QUOTE.
These are things that cannot be taught in Indian or Kerala history. For, on one side a great ‘freedom fighter’ against the British would be seen as a barbarian. On the other side the great valorous traditions of Malabar, which includes a lot of claims about the great Kalari exponents of north Malabar, would stand demolished.
However, a deeper analysis would reveal that what always brings in disarray and mismanagement is the machinery of feudal languages. In fact, even the Mysorean side was to get the negative effects of this, when they confronted the English armies.
QUOTE: This refers to the massacre at this same place a few months previously of five French deserters from Mahe proceeding to join Hyder Ali's army. This event occurred during the general revolt which followed Hyder Ali’s withdrawal from the coast. Two women accompanying the deserters were, it is alleged, most barbarously mutilated and killed at the same time. END OF QUOTE.
To be caught by the barbarians on any side of this conflict was a terrible experience.
QUOTE: Before he quitted the country, Hyder by a solemn edict, declared the Nayars deprived of all their privileges ; and ordained that their caste, which was the first after the Brahmans, should thereafter be the lowest of all the castes, subjecting them to salute the Parias and others of the lowest castes by ranging themselves before them as the other Mallabars had been obliged to do before the Nayars ; permitting all the other caste to bear arms and forbidding them to the Nayars, who till then had enjoyed the sole right of carrying them; at the same time allowing and commanding all persons to kill such Nayars as were found bearing arms. By this rigorous edict, Hyder expected to make all the other castes enemies of the Nayars, and that they would rejoice in the occasion of revenging themselves for the tyrannic oppression this nobility had till then exerted over them. END OF QUOTE.
Actually what the above edict proposes in the total upheaval and the vertical flipping of the social order as designed in the feudal languages. It is something like commanding the police constables to be on the top layer, and the IPS officers at the bottom. That of the lower police officials addressing their actual seniors with Inhi / Nee, and referring to them as Oan/ Avan, Oal / Aval. This single flipping of verbal codes can literally through the whole regimentation into terrific disarray.
QUOTE: Hyder Ali bought off the Mahrattas, and the Nizam was induced to throw over his allies and to join Hyder Ali in a campaign against the English on the east coast. The first act of hostility occurred on 25th August 1768, but the news did not reach Tellicherry till the 13th October.
It is unnecessary to trace in detail the operations which followed. The allies were beaten in the field, the Nizam made a separate peace, the English in conjunction with Muhammad Ali, Nabob of the Carnatic, overran Hyder Ali’s dominions, and planned, with an utterly inadequate force to carry out this resolution, an invasion of Mysore itself. END OF QUOTE.
Surely there was something quite different in the English side, that even in times of extreme tribulations, they face the trials and came out victorious. In a feudal language situation, when one’s leaders are seen as losing, the verbal codes of ‘respect’ will get erased. This is a terrible tragedy to occur. For, when one is in grave need of ‘respect’ it would be withdrawn.
QUOTE: Hyder Ali’s rapid and secret march across the peninsula and his recapture of Mangalore are matters of history. The Bombay force was driven out of Mangalore with such indecent haste that they even left their sick and wounded behind them, as well, as their field-pieces and stores. Honore and other places were recovered with equal ease, and before the monsoon commenced Hyder Ali’s army had reascended the ghats. END OF QUOTE
Fabulous success. But then maintaining it against the feeble softness of native-English perseverance would be impossible!
QUOTE: In June he was at Bednur wreaking his vengeance on the inhabitants who had favoured the English designs, END OF QUOTE.
Actually everyone outside his immediate command hierarchy would prefer the English rule, rather than the tumultuous clamour and whimsical style of rule of Hyder Ali.
QUOTE: Excepting Kolattunad and Palghat, therefore, and perhaps Kottayam and other petty chieftains, whose territories Hyder Ali’s officers had never so far been able to command, the Malayali chiefs eagerly adopted the terms offered, and "Hyder’s provincial troops, whose escape would otherwise have been impracticable, not only retreated in safety, but loaded with treasure—the willing contribution of the chiefs of Malabar—the purchase of a dream of independence.” END OF QUOTE.
Everyone is eager for their own survival. There is no other political policy, no social welfare, no concept of infrastructure building for the common populace, no policy of educating the masses, nothing other than self-protection. That is only aim in a feudal language social set up.
QUOTE: Hyder Ali had meanwhile after suffering many reverses been forced by the Mahrattas to make a disadvantageous peace. In a short time, however, his treasury was again replenished at the expense of his subjects and his forces were reorganised END OF QUOTE.
In a feudal language social set-up, the only aim is to gather leadership. Without it, there is no ‘respect’. Everyone clamours for this slippery item called ‘respect’.
QUOTE: Coorg fell to him in November 1773, and a force despatched under Said Sahib and Srinavas Row Berki pushed through Wynad and descended on Malabar about 27th December by a new and direct route via the Tamarasseri pass END OF QUOTE.
‘Srinavas Row Berki’ seems to be a non-Muslim name. How Hyder could manage his pro-Muslim agenda using non-Muslim commanders is an intriguing point worthy of inspection.
QUOTE: The latter had agreed in the Treaty of 1769 to assist him against the Maharattas, but Muhammad Ali, the Nabob of the Carnatic, had by intrigues in England effectually prevented the fulfilment of that part of the treaty in order to carry out an ambitious scheme of his own. Hyder Ali appears to have fathomed the Nabob’s designs, which, as a preliminary to still more ambitious schemes, required Hyder Ali’s own destruction, and he accordingly determined to break with the English. His relations with the Mahrattas, however, led him to temporise for a time. Meanwhile if he could possess himself of Travancore he would not only replenish his coffers, but would secure an advantageous position on his enemy’s flank for his contemplated invasion of the Carnatic. END OF QUOTE.
Quite a wholesome content.
The point ‘by intrigues in England effectually prevented the fulfilment of that part of the treaty’ is a very interesting information that should be taken up for more debate. It is seen that during the English East India Company rule in a particular percent area of the subcontinent, some of the kings and princes of the subcontinent did go to England and secure support for their misdeeds from there. It is seen that even in the months preceding the Sepoy Mutiny in the northern parts of the subcontinent (in the Bengal regiment), a particular agent of one of the small-time kings had gone to England, to assess the situation there, and to deceive the gullible, and foolish native-English there.
QUOTE from THE STORY OF CAWNPORE by CAPT. MOWBRAY THOMSON :
Azimoolah was originally a khitmutghar (waiter at table) in some Anglo-Indian family; profiting by the opportunity thus afforded him, he acquired a thorough acquaintance with the English and French languages, so as to be able to read and converse fluently, and write accurately in them both. He afterwards became a pupil, and subsequently a teacher, in the Cawnpore government schools, and from the last-named position he was selected to become the vakeel, or prime agent, of the Nana.
On account of his numerous qualifications he was deputed to visit England, and press upon the authorities in Leadenhall Street the application for the continuance of Bajee Rao’s pension. Azimoolah accordingly reached London in the season of 1854. Passing himself off as an Indian prince, and being thoroughly furnished with ways and means, and having withal a most presentable contour, he obtained admission to distinguished society.
In addition to the political business which he had in hand, he was at one time prosecuting a suit of his own of a more delicate character; but, happily for our fair countrywoman, who was the object of his attentions, her friends interfered and saved her from becoming an item in the harem of this Mahommedan polygamist. Foiled in all his attempts to obtain the pension for his employer, he returned to India via France; and report says that he there renewed his endeavours to form an European alliance for his own individual benefit. I believe that Azimoolah took the way of Constantinople also on his homeward route.
..............It is matter of notoriety that such vaticinations as these were at the period in question current from Calais to Cairo, and it is not unlikely that the poor comfort Azimoolah could give the Nana, in reporting on his unsuccessful journey, would be in some measure compensated for, by the tidings that the Feringhees were ruined, and that one decisive blow would destroy their yoke in the East.
I believe that the mutiny had its origin in the diffusion of such statements at Delhi, Lucknow, and other teeming cities in India. Subtle, intriguing, politic, unscrupulous, and bloodthirsty, sleek and wary as a tiger, this man betrayed no animosity to us until the outburst of the mutiny, and then he became the presiding genius in the assault on Cawnpore.
I regret that his name does not appear, as it certainly ought to have done, upon the list of outlaws published by the Governor- General; for this Azimoolah was the actual murderer of our sisters and their babes. When Havelock’s men cleared out Bithoor, they found most expressive traces of the success he had obtained in his ambitious . pursuit of distinction in England, in the shape of letters from titled ladies couched in the terms of most courteous friendship. Little could they have suspected the true character of their honoured correspondent. END OF QUOTE
QUOTE: Mahe was at this time of more importance to Hyder Ali than even Pondicherry itself, for it was through that port that he received his guns and ammunition and French reinforcements. END OF QUOTE.
It does really seem that the Indian government should honour the French, as does the foolish US government, for supporting the ‘freedom fighter’ Hyder Ali in his endeavour to defeat the English.
QUOTE: Hyder Ali approved of young Kadattanad’s conduct, and the latter beheaded the unfortunate dhobi in the presence of a peon of Brathwaite’s, who had gone with a message, and of a horsekeeper who had also been entrapped. The two latter, with their hands cut off, were permitted to return to Mahe. END OF QUOTE.
This cutting of limbs does seem to be a natural habit of the Mysorean kings, both Hyder as well as Tippu. However, it might not be correct to associate these barbarian habits with Islam. For, even Velu Thampi of Travancore did have this kind of habit. The land and the people were reacting to the terrific codes inside feudal languages. Even native-English men would react in a similar manner when they feel the terrors of pejorative feudal language verbal codes. Check what Adam Purinton did in the USA.
QUOTE: On October 24th the factors recorded their opinion that Hyder Ali intended to break with the Honourable Company, and that the native chiefs were acting under secret orders from him. END OF QUOTE.
Once the ‘revered’ leadership shows signs of going weak, it is natural for the ‘respecters’ to jump to the more ‘respected’ side. For, that is how the feudal language codes urge.
QUOTE: 1. Hyder Ali himself, too, in a letter to the Resident received on February 4th, 1780, complained of the protection afforded to the Nayars and their families and of the assistance given to them in arms, etc., in order to create disturbances
2. Into this small and insufficiently protected area flocked every one who had property to lose. Hyder Ali’s “Buxy” (Bakshi — paymaster) at Mahe, in a letter of May 29th, 1780, to the Resident put the matter very forcibly thus : “I know perfectly well that you have been guilty of giving an asylum to people that ought to pay to the Nabob lacks and lacks of rupees, and given assistance to the vassals of the Nabob. You also keep in your protection thieves, who ought to pay lacks and lacks of rupees.” END OF QUOTE.
Though the English Company has no particular affinity for any of the barbarian populations in the subcontinent, since they are in charge of the protection of those who come to them for safety, they were morally duty-bound to protect them. However, Hyder has the aim to crush the traditional oppressor classes of the land. Yet, there is no cumulative social reform that will come about. There will be only a change of positions, with the lower castes occupying the higher positions. Which will be a more tragic scenario.
QUOTE: On December 6th, 1779, Sirdar Khan, accompanied by some European officers, minutely reconnoitred all the posts, END OF QUOTE.
It is amply clear that the English colonialism in the South Asian subcontinent was a fight by the English against the Continental Europeans. The Continental Europeans were the first and foremost fighters for ‘Indian Independence’! Even before the very nation of ‘India’ was formed, they were at it.
QUOTE: The church management went on smoothly till the invasion of Malabar by Hyder Ali in 1766. In that year the Portuguese Vicar and Factor waited on Hyder Ali and obtained an order to Madye, Raja of Coimbatore and Governor of Calicut, for the payment of 2,420 fanams annualiy to the Vicar of the church. Hyder All also ordered that the rent and revenue or benefits of the landed property should not be appropriated END OF QUOTE.
In a feudal language set up, a direct appeal with the expected obeisance can work wonders. Rule of law, statutes, fair-play, justice, right &c. can get sidelined by this method.
QUOTE: Hyder Ali died on the 7th December 1782 and Tippu was in full march back to secure his father’s throne. END OF QUOTE.
Now starts the next fight. The desperation to capture the title of the Sultan before anyone else can take possession of it. There is no policy of primogeniturein practise anywhere in the land, even though one traveller in his mistaken observation has mentioned such a thing. In the subcontinent, the foreign travellers are easily fooled.
1. My aim
5. The first impressions about the contents
7. An acute sense of not understanding
8. Entering a terrible social system
9. The doctoring and the manipulations
10. What was missed or unmentioned, or even fallaciously defined
12. Nairs / Nayars
16. Nairs / Nayars
18. The terror that perched upon the Nayars
20. Exertions of the converted Christian Church
24. About the language Malayalam
26. Misconnecting with English
27. Feudal language
30. CASTE SYSTEM
32. The Portuguese
33. The DUTCH
34. The French
35. The ENGLISH
38. Mappilla outrages against the Nayars and the Hindus
40. What is repulsive about the Muslims?
41. Hyder Ali
42. Sultan Tippu
45. Ali Raja
48. The Zamorin and other apparitions
49. The Jews
50. SOCIAL CUSTOMS
53. Pestilence, famine etc.
54. British Malabar versus Travancore kingdom
56. Revenue and administrative changes
59. Henry Valentine Conolly
60. Miscellaneous notes
61. Culture of the land
62. The English efforts in developing the subcontinent
64. Oft-mentioned objections
65. Photos and pictures of the Colonial times
66. Payment for the Colonial deeds
67. Calculating the compensation