William Logan’s ‘Malabar Manual’
VED from VICTORIA INSTITUTIONS
The English efforts in developing the subcontinent
It is foretold! The torrential flow of inexorable destiny!
The English Company officials came to the subcontinent as employees of an England-based trading company. However, the social forces and the accumulated social errors in the location forced them to intervene and to take charge of around half of the subcontinent.
English-based trade, employment, supervision, entrepreneurship etc. cannot be understood from any feudal languages.
All the above-mentioned items are there in feudal languages also. However, the main motivating factor in them is the urge to go up in ‘respect’ by being able to subordinate a number individuals as degraded dependents, who themselves are arranged in a hierarchy, by means of ennobling versus degrading verbal codes.
This is the very powerful information that is missed in all kinds of sociological, business, labour-relationship, entrepreneurship, psychology &c. studies about feudal language social systems.
The amount of commitment, courage and perseverance shown by the native-English officials cannot be imagined as of now. For, even England as changed from a pristine-English entity, and the Mecca of pristine-English, to a Multi-culture entity with monstrous possibilities in its destiny, unless very powerful corrective measures are inserted before it is too late.
QUOTE: Since this was sent to press, an agreement has been arrived at with the Travancore Government to transfer Tangassori and the four bits of territory belonging to the Cochin Taluk to Travancore in part exchange for the site of the Periyar dam designed to turn for irrigation purposes a portion of the waters of the Periyar (great river) across the ghats into the Madurai district. The agreement has not yet been carried out, END OF QUOTE.
The English government based in Madras was ready to transfer the rights over Tangasseri and four other bits of territory to a native-kingdom. Why? To get the permission to create a dam on the Periyar river. I think this history is connected to the building of Mullaperiyar Dam. It was a momentous work in which very many native-Englishmen perished.
It is seen mentioned that the chief officer in charge Col. John Pennycuick did go home to England, sell his private properties, gather money to fund the project, which was completed in 1895. This was because the English administration ran out of funds for the project. This was due to the fact that natural forces like heavy rain, and floods kept on destroying the work and the work materials.
This Dam irrigated of 2.23 lakh (hundred-thousand) acres in Theni, Dindigul, Madurai, Sivaganga and Ramanathapuram districts of Madras presidency. The people wept in joy and worship.
A quote from the grouchy Wikipedia:
QUOTE: Many of the farmer families of the Theni and Madurai districts still keep portraits of Pennycuick and worship him as a god. Villagers prostrate before his portrait, offer prayers, decorate with garlands and perform aarati to his photos which are usually kept in the hall or in puja room along with images of other gods END OF QUOTE
QUOTE: Out of 30 boys, with whom a school was established in 1878, only 11 appeared for examination in 1880. END OF QUOTE.
That was in Agatti Island in the Laccadive Islands.
QUOTE: A school was started by Mr. Winterbotham in 1878 with a nominal roll of 36 boys, but this number had dwindled away to 14 in 1880. The plan of combining mosque schools and secular schools is being tried. END OF QUOTE
That was in the Androth Island in the Laccadive Islands. The fact was that the English administration was trying to uphold to its own honourable stance that they would usher in social quality in semi-barbarian locations, all around the world.
QUOTE: Next day the French unloaded their ship and hauled her in so close under the forts that it was thought she was aground. She lost 50 men in the action, including her captain, while the English loss was only 2 men. END OF QUOTE.
It might seem a quixotic claim if it is pointed out that in most of the English East India Company’s military engagements in the Subcontinent against all others including the Continental Europeans, the English side usually lost only very few of its individuals. Only in rare occasions of some terrific errors or backstabbing did they lose more.
I do not know if the reader here may agree to my contention that it was the planar codes of the English language that made difference. The logic in this statement has been very carefully explained in the ‘An Impressionistic history of the South Asian Subcontinent.’
QUOTE: It may be added that the Nayar shortly afterwards proved to the satisfaction of the Commissioners that he was really independent of the Cochin Raja, and a decision was accordingly given in his favour on this point END OF QUOTE.
The English administration was quite magnanimous and at the same time beyond the stranglehold of nepotism and partiality. Again, this was secured through the planar codes of English.
The point to be noted here is that if it was a local native entity that was the deciding power, the most significant logic that would have swung the decision would be the question of ‘did he display enough ‘respect’’?
If not, he is done for. If Yes, then whatever be the correctness of the other side’s arguments, they would lose their case. This is how the nation of India is being currently run.
QUOTE: Of those “under instruction” 59,264 were males and 9,550 were females ; of the “instructed ” 147,167 were males and 20,009 were females ; and of the “illiterate and not stated” 967,173 were males and 1,160,471 were females. To cope with this dense mass of ignorance a good deal of attention has been bestowed in the last twenty-five years on schools and education, and the progress obtained will be seen from the following figures END OF QUOTE
The English East India Company seems to have understood that the bane of the land was lack of formal education. This was not a correct assessment. The curse on the land was the feudal languages of the land.
I am not sure at what point the Company and later the British Crown rule came to the understanding that it was promotion of English that would improve the social system. It was Lord Macaulay’s famous Minutes on Indian Education that more or less created a most powerful inducement for teaching English to the masses. He did detect that the native-languages of the land were ‘rude’.
I do not know what he meant by ‘rude’. However, the fact is that the languages of the land are not only rude, but worse than rude. They have got all the codes for social discrimination. And also for homicide and mass massacres if a wrong indicant word is used at certain locations.
In fact, almost all the current-day seemingly insane gun violence in the USA is provoked by the unrestrained entry of feudal language speakers into a quaint native-English land. The feudal languages speakers can use these terrific provocative codes with all the facial charm of being magnanimous, when actually they would be busy inserting sharp wedges into the social system.
QUOTE: They work very hard for the pittance they receive; in fact nearly all the riceland cultivation used to be in former days carried on by them. The influx of European planters, who offer good wages, END OF QUOTE
The above statement has all the feelings of the anecdotal story of the frog sitting on the elephant, when the elephant stomped the crocodile. It is the frog’s claim that it was he and the elephant that crushed the crocodile.
All positive changes that entered into the Subcontinent were the handiwork of the native-English. The Continental Europeans were at first the ‘freedom fighters of India’, who either individually or with the natives rude kings and rulers of the subcontinent fought the ‘freedom fight’ against the English rule.
The use of the word ‘European’, when an appropriate word ‘native-English’ or ‘British’ is available, is really a misuse of the word.
It might be true that there were Europeans also in the new fray to create plantations. However, the fact then would be that there were many natives of the subcontinent also doing the same thing. Indeed, even the lower castes did enter into this frenzy.
QUOTE: The questions of slavery and the slave trade attracted the early attention of the Honourable Company’s Government. So early as 1702, the year in which British rule commenced, a proclamation was issued by the Commissioners against dealing in slaves. END OF QUOTE
Terrible things get enacted in the subcontinent currently. Degrading words are used to the subordinate. The police personnel literally used abusive or degrading words to the common persons and thrash them up inside the police stations. School teachers use terrific degrading words like Thoo / Nee, Eda, Edi, Avan, USS, Aval etc. to and about the students under them.
The household servants are not allowed to sit on a chair. They have to sit on the floor, eat on the floor, and sleep on the floor. They are addressed in the degrading verbal codes.
No one notices any of these things. However, the moment a native-English man or woman sees this, he or she will notice that there is something amiss. This is the mental quality that made the native-English officials see an item which went on unnoticed in the subcontinent for centuries.
The reader is requested to read the chapter in this Commentary dealing with Slavery.
QUOTE: The forests are peopled by Kurichiyars—a class of Jungle tribes who raise various products in them. The forest has been notified for reservation under the Madras Forest Act V of 1882. END OF QUOTE
This is about the forest areas that come under the Kottayam raja’s place. The Kurichiyars were the jungle tribe in the Wynad area who were fooled and terrorised by the Pazhassiraja’s people. They were made accomplice in a murder and thus forced to join the insurgency run by Pazhassiraja, who had unsuccessfully tried to usurp his uncle royal title. His uncle was more cunning. For more on this, read the Section on Pazhassiraja in this Commentary.
Now, about the notification for reservation under the Madras Forest Act V of 1882. It was great deeds like this that more or less protected both the forest wealth as well as the forest people from the ravages of the social leaders of the subcontinent. However, when the English rule departed, the forests were literally in the hands of the thugs, who had no qualms in plundering everything inside the forests.
QUOTE: 1. The forests were worked on the native system for many years, no efforts were made to improve them, and trees were indiscriminately felled where found, whatever their age might be. In 1878, all felling of living teak was stopped, and the Forest Department turned its attention to the utilisation of the wind-fallen and dead trees which were being annually destroyed by fire. In 1882, the Forest Act was introduced, and immense progress has been made in the scientific treatment of the forests
2. Nurseries have been established, and large quantities of ficus elastica seed obtained from Assam and planted, and numerous seedlings raised. Mahogany and bamboo seedlings are also being raised to plant out clearings
3. Various exotics, such as mahogany and rubber trees, castilloa, hevea and ipecacuanha, are being planted and experimented with, and some of them have thoroughly been acclimatised and established there. END OF QUOTE
It was an utter crime done by the British Labour Party to handover the British-Indian army to Pakistan and Indian politicians who within a decade destroyed the complete incorruptible culture of the administration which had been designed by the English administrators.
1) The Deputy Collector and Magistrate located at Manantoddy.
(2) The Tahsildar and Sub-Magistrate located at Manantoddy.
(3) The Police Inspector located at Manantoddy.
(4) The Deputy Tahsildar and Sub-Magistrate located at Vayitiri.
(6) The Police Inspector located at Vayitiri.
(6) The District Munsif located at Vayitiri.
(7) The Sub-Registrar, Manantoddy, under the District Registrar. Tellicherry.
(8) The Sub-Registrar, Vayitiri, under the District Registrar, Calicut.
(9) Combined Postal and Telegraph office at Vayitiri.
(10) Other Post offices at Manantoddy, Kalpetta. Tariyott, Sultan’s Battery and Mepadi.
(11) Police stations at Manantoddy, Oliyot, Koroth, Panamaram, Kalpetta, Vayitiri, Mepadi, Tariyott, Sultan’s Battery and Periah.
(12) Sub-Assistant Conservator at Manantoddy and his subordinates,
(13) Local Fund Supervisors and Sub-Overseers at Vayitiri and Manantoddy.
(14) Local Fund Middle School at Manantoddy.
(15) Vaccine staff for North and South Wynad under the control of the Deputy Inspectors of Tellicherry and Calicut circles respectively.
(16) Hospitals at Vayitiri and Manantoddy in charge of Apothecaries ; the latter being supervised till August 1886 by a European medical officer, who drew a special allowance of Rs. 150 per mensem from Government.
(17) Bench of Magistrates, North Wynad.
(18) Do. South Wynad.
END OF QUOTE
QUOTE: The Post office at Calicut is also held in a private building rented for the purpose. It is not far from the Telegraph office. END OF QUOTE
This is a minor list of social and administrative infrastructure created by the English rule in the remote forest areas of Wynad. It definitely took a lot of determination to create all this, in a location where for centuries the local feudal lords literally fleeced the lower populations. In fact, the lower class females were under full access to the feudal lords at any time they wanted. The poor husband, who would literally be treated like some cattle, would have to stand apart for the feudal lord to be thus entertained. It was the norm. His wife herself would have bare ‘respect’ for her husband, as she is verbal trained to ‘respect’ the feudal lord.
It was the entry of the English administration that for the first time in recorded history that made an attempt to stop this ravaging. And established the rights of the husband against the various external claims on his wife. As of now, again Indian statutory laws are handing this right back to the wife’s father, mother, uncle, aunts, cousin etc. Utter academic-idiots are now in charge of writing statutory laws!
In a location where the common man cannot go much beyond his or her immediate neighbourhood due to reasons of safety, a very powerful administrative set-up based on egalitarian principles was being set up.
See what was being set up:
Deputy Collector, Magistrate, Tahsildar, Sub Magistrate, Police Inspector, Deputy Tahsildar, District Munsif, Sub-Registrars, Postal and Telegraph office, post offices, Sub-Assistant Conservator, Local Fund Supervisors and Sub-Overseers, Middle School, Vaccine staff, Hospitals &c.
The modern day jingoist who has had all the facilities and infrastructures given to him on a silver platter will quite easily mention that everything was done to suppress the ‘Indians’. Those kinds of claims are only perverse words. The police, judiciary, hospitals, vaccination staff, post offices, telegraph office, forest offices were all for the people of the land. None of them were looting offices.
However, all of these set-ups did have a basic deficiency. That the staff members were not native-English, but the same old natives of the land. These people carried the terrible codes of their horrible feudal languages. The moment they get some power in their hands, they would use it to degrade the others in the lands.
QUOTE: Under the head of education, the census of 1881 returned 6,384 persons as ‘'under instruction,” 18,721 as "instructed” and 180,857 as "illiterate including not stated”—a state of things which shows that education has not reached the masses END OF QUOTE
That was about the state of Education in Calicut Taluk. The urgency and focus on spreading education in the location is seen in the above statement. May be it would have been understood that the mere spread on sterile knowledge would bring in qualitative improvement in the social system. However, that was an erroneous understanding. For, all education in the feudal languages would only add to the terrors of the society. For, it was literally feeding the Satan with more powers.
Only when the English East India Company decided to support English education did the real quality enhancements come. However, this was to take time. Only in few locations did reach to the heights. And before anything could be done to spread out the quality, the English rule was ended by the idiots in England.
With that, a very low-class replicated form of education spread from the Travancore area. This spread into Malabar and more or less erased the whole good quality systems that was there in British-Malabar. For, as of now, British-Malabar had been forcefully redesigned as Enslaved-to-Hindi-Malabar.
The Hindi land people who are formally educated do not have much ‘respect’ for Malabar. They visualise Malabar as Mallus. Actually this Mallu word is a very recent accident that befell the Malabar people.
During the British-Malabar times, Malabar was part of Madras Presidency. And hence, the Malabaris were generally known as Madrasis.
However, when Malabar was disconnected with Madras state, this very people were mentioned as Malabaris.
But then, when the Malabari culture was overrun by the Travancore language of Malayalam, both the names became quite unsuitable.
In those days, the change came in the Middle-East Gulf nations. The Mallu word was a derogatory word used upon the Malayalam speakers. It was more or less used in the same sense as ‘Annachis’, (Tamil-speaking rag-pickers of those times in Kerala). Slowly the Malayalam speakers started mentioning themselves as ‘Mallus’, without any information that it is a derogatory word.
As of now, all persons of Kerala are generally mentioned in derogation as Mallus by the others, and as Mallus by the Keralites themselves in the firm belief that it is some kind of ennobling word.
As of now, the Malabaris have lost all the good points in their culture, and has absorbed all the bad points in Malayalam culture.
QUOTE: Cochin Taluk: On 31st March 1886 there were 16 schools, middle, primary, aided and unaided, with an attendance of 996 pupils END OF QUOTE
That was about British-Cochin, and not about the native kingdom of Cochin.
The purposes to which the funds raised under the Act are applied are
— (a) the construction, repair and maintenance of streets and bridges and other means of communication ;
(b) the construction and repair of hospitals, dispensaries, lunatic asylums, choultries, markets, drains, sewers, tanks and wells, the payment of all charges connected with the objects for which such buildings have been constructed, the training and employment of medical practitioners, vaccinators, the sanitary inspection of towns and villages, the registration of births and deaths, the lighting of the streets, the cleaning of streets, tanks and wells, and other works of a similar nature ;
(c) the diffusion of education, and with this view - the construction and repair of school-houses, the establishment and maintenance of schools either wholly or by means of grants-in-aid, the inspection of schools and the training of teachers
(d) other measures of public utility calculated to promote the safety, health, comfort or convenience of the people ;
(e) the payment of salaries, leave allowances, pensions, gratuities and compassionate allowances to servants employed by the Municipal Council ; and
(f) the payment of all expenses specially provided for by the Act, but not included under preceding clauses (a) to (e).
END OF QUOTE.
As of now, around 100% of all these kinds of governmental revenue is for feeding the gigantic white elephants called ‘government employees’, and for providing various kinds of conveniences for their family members.
For more on this, check: Fence eating the Crops.
QUOTE: The pier went out of order in 1883, when, with the permission of Government, a company of local merchants, designated the Calicut Pier and Warehouse Company Limited, to carry on the business of warehousemen and to levy cranage and other dues and tolls, was started with a capital of Rs. 5,000, which was utilised for repairing the pier. END OF QUOTE
The birdbrain who is now currently campaigning in England for compensation for ‘looting’ ‘India’, seems to have a feeling that the native people of British-India were gullible fools. Actually, the exact opposite was the truth. They were too intelligent for words. But they lived in a feudal language ambience which would not bring in social placidity. They used the English rule to the best to improve themselves.
QUOTE: There is a club for Europeans on the beach which was started on the 8th February 1864. Connected with the club is a station library maintained by subscriptions. END OF QUOTE.
The fact that a club was there which limited its membership to those of white-skin colour might look quite rude. However, the fact is that there are various locations inside the subcontinent where only certain kind of people are given admittance. No one sees anything wrong with them. Only when white skin-colour is used as the minimum qualification for admittance does the fury of the fussy intellectuals erupt.
Actually giving a private space of culturally different populations is good. It would be a free space where they can be themselves. The problem here is that the native-English create great private spaces. The others who are rich want to barge in. They find it quite troubling that their money cannot get them everything. At the same time, they find that they are not able to create something which is good enough for them.
This is one part of the issue. The second part is the word European. Connecting Continental Europeans with the native-English is certainly a sore point. Even Gundert, the Travancorean stooge, should have been kept out.
QUOTE: The hospital and dispensary at Calicut was opened in October 1845, under the auspices of Government. It was transferred to the Municipality when it was instituted at Calicut. It is now kept up at Municipal expense supplemented by a grant from the District Board. The dispensary has an endowment of Rs. 13,000 collected by private subscriptions and invested in Government securities yielding Rs. 520 per annum as interest.
2. Palghat: In-patients as well as outpatients are largely treated in the hospital referred to, the total number of beds available for in-patients being 16; 8 for males and 8 for females END OF QUOTE.
It should be quite surprising that these kinds of people welfare activities and infrastructure building were not in the purview of either the king of Calicut or of the immensity of rulers in the subcontinent. It is true that some 2000 years back a king on the eastern border areas of the subcontinent did go around placing a lot of rock edicts claiming all kinds of bountiful actions of his. It is quite curious as to what kind of a rule he was that he should go around writing his own greatness and great actions. It sounds quite similar to the actions of current-day Indian politicians and officials who placed full-page newspaper ads proclaiming their various developmental activities.
QUOTE: The lunatic asylum at Calicut was established on 20th May 1872 at a cost of Rs. 39,250. It is about 2½ miles east of Calicut on the road to Chevayur. It is built on a hill called Kutiravattam. On the 31st March 1885, there were 149 lunatics in the asylum. END OF QUOTE.
It is curious that Edgar Thurston has mentioned that it is the Eurasians who are more prone to insanity than the pure natives of the subcontinent. It is no doubt the affect of living in two different language systems. As the person and his personality shift from of a planar language to that of a feudal language, he would feel his personality wobble, degraded, kicked, distorted, and disarrayed. A normal man would go berserk. Others would not.
Check what Adam Purinton did when accosted and addressed by feudal language speakers.
QUOTE: Sanitation. The conservancy of the chief towns is looked after by a staff consisting of 1 Sanitary Inspector, 1 maistry, 13 sweepers and 1 totti, paid from Local Funds. The Inspector, with his headquarters at Ponnani, supervises the work of the whole staff which is distributed as follows :—Ponnani, 4 sweepers and 1 totti ; Betatpudiyangadi, 3 sweepers ; Tanur, 1 maistry and 3 sweepers ; the remaining 3 sweepers being attached respectively to the three fish curing yards situated at Ponnani, Veliyangod and Tanur END OF QUOTE.
The interest taken by the native-English administration in maintaining the cleanliness of the townships was phenomenal. However, it is doubtful if the people really understood its value. They had the habit of using the most desultory verbal usages for persons concerned with sanitation.
QUOTE After much and protracted discussion it was further finally decided that the French had made good their claims to certain other bits of territory lying in the neighbourhood of Mahe, described as the “four villages of Paloor, Pandaquel, Chamberra and Chalicarra, and of the three detached points or posts of Fort Saint George, the great and the little Calayi, as defined by the British authorities, without any of the territory in their vicinity, to which a claim was made on a former occasion.” These bits of territory were accordingly delivered1 to the French on 14th November 1853. END OF QUOTE.
The sense of fair-play, justness and magnanimity of the native-English administration is beyond words.
QUOTE: 1. Prices which were abnormally low just then rose in 1831-32 to about fifteen per cent, after the setting in of the rains. In the following year they again rose twelve per cent. Prices were again higher in 1833-34
2. Since 1832 a high flood of prices has set in which as yet shows no sign of ebbing END OF QUOTE
The real economic effect of the English rule can be seen in the above-statement. In 1917, the British-Indian rupee is stated to have been Seven USD. That was the state of the economy.
However, as of now, there is another kind of economic machine at work. Artificially bring down the currency value. As of now, One USD is equivalent to 64 rupees. This has created an artificial group of rich persons who are employed or domiciled or doing business in native-English and other nations. The locally earning ‘Indians’ have gone down to the very bottom of an economic gorge. The aforementioned artificial rich are literally buying up the land and the people. All history and political discussion are manipulated by these artificially rich individuals to befool the people.
QUOTE Port rules for Cannanore
Your immediate and most particular attention is requested to the imperative necessity of your entering in the report herewith forwarded the state of health of your crew and passengers, and whether any infectious and malignant or other disease has appeared on board during the voyage.
In the event of any such sickness having occurred, you are hereby ordered and directed to prevent all communication with other vessels in the roads or with the shore, until the Port and Marine Surgeon shall have duly reported such intercourse to be free from objection. If sickness has appeared and still prevails, you are required to hoist the flag R of the Commercial Code by day, or two lighted lanterns one over the other at the fore by night. END OF QUOTE
In a land with no systems, other than loud shouting and rude rebukes, the native-English side was building up systems and codes of professional functioning. The only error in the ambience was the feudal language of the native people of the subcontinent. It remained rude, unpleasant and auguring distaste and disaster in the offing.
QUOTE: Commanders and officers are particularly requested to abstain from ill-using boatmen or other natives. All complaints will be promptly inquired into. END OF QUOTE.
The English officers did have some understanding on what really happens outside the veils of the statutory codes. The verbal exchanges are, even if politely and softly done, quite rude and oppressive, and also demanding ‘respect’ and subservience towards the lower positioned persons. However, if the lower positioned are placed at a higher level, they would change into the same oppressive form.
1. My aim
5. The first impressions about the contents
7. An acute sense of not understanding
8. Entering a terrible social system
9. The doctoring and the manipulations
10. What was missed or unmentioned, or even fallaciously defined
12. Nairs / Nayars
16. Nairs / Nayars
18. The terror that perched upon the Nayars
20. Exertions of the converted Christian Church
24. About the language Malayalam
26. Misconnecting with English
27. Feudal language
30. CASTE SYSTEM
32. The Portuguese
33. The DUTCH
34. The French
35. The ENGLISH
38. Mappilla outrages against the Nayars and the Hindus
40. What is repulsive about the Muslims?
41. Hyder Ali
42. Sultan Tippu
45. Ali Raja
48. The Zamorin and other apparitions
49. The Jews
50. SOCIAL CUSTOMS
53. Pestilence, famine etc.
54. British Malabar versus Travancore kingdom
56. Revenue and administrative changes
59. Henry Valentine Conolly
60. Miscellaneous notes
61. Culture of the land
62. The English efforts in developing the subcontinent
64. Oft-mentioned objections
65. Photos and pictures of the Colonial times
66. Payment for the Colonial deeds
67. Calculating the compensation