NATIVE LIFE IN TRAVANCORE
VED from VICTORIA INSTITUTIONS
It is foretold! The torrential flow of inexorable destiny!
QUOTE: Those who reach maturity are doomed to work like beasts of burden, to live in wretched hovels, to eat the most offensive animals and reptiles, and to be treated as outcasts by their fellow creatures. Their evidence is not admitted against their masters; and if they meet a free person on the road they are bound to run from him lest they pollute him. They draw out a miserable existence; and are often left in old age to beg for their support, or to perish with hunger. By few are they comforted, pitied or relieved; none seek to remove their distresses; and no man cares for their souls.” END of QUOTE
The typical indifference to other people woes that is a part of the common culture of all feudal language social systems. In India, it is part and parcel of the social code.
QUOTE: “The carcases of all domestic animals are claimed by the Pariahs as belonging to them by right. They frequently poison cows, and otherwise kill them, for the sake of their flesh. Lying, stealing, and drunkenness are the prevailing vices of the different tribes of slaves; but crimes of an aggravated nature are very rare among them, except the Pariahs, who are frequently chargeable with robbery, burglary, kidnapping, murder, and other heinous crimes. Nowhere is the degradation of this caste so complete as in this country.” END of QUOTE
Well, some of the lower castes do look quite frightening. Well, they will improve under correct guidance and control. However, the other side has no great guarantee that once they are let-loose, it will be safe for them. The core issue is one of communication. Like communicating with a wide creature. It can cause harm. But will it cause harm? There is the issue of how to communicate with it. In feudal languages codes of the subcontinent, it is not wise to mingle and talk to everyone who looks quite weird and unconnected, unless the other side is ready to be ‘respectable’.
QUOTE: Of the great tribe of Ilavars, the Valanmar are still, through forced services, virtually in the condition of slaves belonging to the State. END of QUOTE
This is one of the reliable evidences that the government of Travancore did make use of forced labour. It would be quite difficult to find forced labour usage by English East India Company in Malabar district.
QUOTE: The attention of the British Government was first attracted to the Cherumars or Pulayar slaves in Malabar; and various inquiries were instituted into their condition. In 1 838, the Census gave the number of slaves in that province as 144,371; and in 1843 slavery was entirely abolished. END of QUOTE
This is one of the reliable evidences that the English East India Company administrators did take an active interest in emancipating the slaves of the subcontinent. It is an action the higher classes of the subcontinent wouldn’t condone. The enslaved populations are there for them enjoy. Who is this East India Company to save them? The likes of Nehru and Gandhi used their looted-from-the-nation wealth to move to England and proclaim their leadership over the subcontinent, when in actuality a might majority of the newly liberated people had nothing to do with them.
QUOTE: In consequence of this pressure a proclamation was issued in 1853 (30th Cunny M.E 1029), declaring free the children of slaves of the State who maybe subsequently born; forbidding the seizure of private slaves in satisfaction of debts; recognising the right of slaves to possess property and to enjoy the protection of the law; directing the emancipation of slaves connected with property escheating to the State; prohibiting, without consent, the sale and separation to a greater distance than fifteen miles of slave parents and children; and prescribing regulations intended to preserve that unhappy class from oppression. “How far,” remarks Thornton, “these rules will be effective against the opposition of both prince and people remains to be seen; but it is something to have obtained a recognition of the right of slaves to be dealt with as human beings.”(“Gazetteer,” Art. Travancore.) END of QUOTE
Generally it is very difficult to spread the liberation. For, in each communication link, the issue of big man versus small man would be there. Even now, people do not like to see another human being enjoying liberty. If they feel that he or she is enjoying some liberty which they can’t enjoy, due to their own social inhibitions, they would round him or her up and bash him or her up.
QUOTE: “Whereas we are anxious to better the condition of our slave population; and it is but just that they should have conceded to them those advantages which are enjoyed by the same class of subjects in the extensive territories of the Hon. E. I. Company; and whereas it appears that our Proclamation of the 6th Coombhum 1029 has not fully accomplished that object, we therefore deem it right to rescind the same, and to proclaim : —
1st. That from and after the date of this Proclamation, all those who are included in the denomination of Sirkar slaves shall be considered free, as well as their posterity, the tax hitherto leviable on them being hereby abolished.
2nd. That no Public Officer shall, in execution of any decree or order of Court, or for the enforcement of any demand of Rent or Revenue, sell or cause to be sold any person, or the right to the compulsory labour or services of any person, on the ground that such person is in a state of slavery.
“3rd. That no rights arising out of an alleged property in the person or services of any individual as a slave, shall be enforced by any Civil or Criminal Court, or Magistrate, within this territory.
“4th. That no person who may have acquired property by his own industry, or by the exercise of any art, calling, or profession, or by inheritance, assignment, gift, or bequest, shall be dispossessed of such property, or prevented from taking possession thereof on the ground that such person, or that the person from whom the property may have been derived, was a slave.
“5th. That any act which would be a penal offence, if done to a free man, shall be equally an offence if done to any person on the pretext of his being in a condition of slavery.”
END of QUOTE
The words: QUOTE: those advantages which are enjoyed by the same class of subjects in the extensive territories of the Hon. E. I. Company END of QUOTE is very powerful. That the same class of individuals who were slaves in Travancore, were free citizens in East India Company ruled Malabar district of Madras Presidency. Yet, no ‘high’ calibre Indian academic historian has noticed these things.
QUOTE: This was followed by another royal Proclamation in August 1858, as follows: — “To all Police Officers. Whereas in some Districts the low-caste people are put to great inconvenience because they cannot approach the places where the Tahsildars sit, to represent their grievances, the Tahsildars shall therefore hear their complaints every day in such places as the low-castes also can approach to prefer their petitions, and shall decide such petitions without delay.”
“To all Police Officers. Whereas it is reported that since slavery has been abolished by Royal Proclamation, some persons do not allow those who were formerly slaves to work for whom they chose; and also that these persons, with the view of bringing back those who have gone to work under others, use intimidation and prefer false accusations of theft, &c. against them, and thereby trouble and oppress them; and whereas, it is also reported that such persons are helped by Sirkar officials, the Samprathies are hereby ordered to inform the Police Gumasthas, Tanah Naicks, Provertykars, and others, that the Royal Proclamation must be strictly carried out, and that those who in opposition to it persecute these people with false charges shall be duly punished; and all Sirkar officers who are abettors to such complainants shall be at once dismissed the service. END of QUOTE
It is quite difficult to move the officialdom, whether it is high caste or low caste or mixed caste. For, it itself is another high caste, which do not want the common man to exhibit dignity and stature.
QUOTE: A few, like Sir Madava Row, nobly and honourably supported the cause of right; but cases of complaint rarely succeeded in those days, as the subordinate magistracy were so deeply prejudiced and naturally partial to their own intimates and caste connections.
The former slave-owners grudged, as they still do, the emancipation of the serfs, fearing the ruin of their agricultural interests; and sought to hinder freedom and keep the Pulayars down in every possible way. They laboured to prevent the slaves getting lands, reclaimed by themselves, registered in their own names as private property, and appropriated adjacent gardens actually cleared by them. They terrified their serfs by absurd and wicked reports, END of QUOTE
In the ultimate count, it is not a competition between castes, but between those who are defined as lower indicant versus those who are defined as higher indicant in the feudal language codes. It is not like English. Every change in physical, social and mental stature causes changes in the word codes. It can be terrifying to allow a lower indicant person to use a lower indicant word on or about a higher place person of refinement. Rev. Matteer as well as all other English writers have missed this great point.
QUOTE: The liberated slaves also have been, as a body, slow to avail themselves of their freedom, and in many instances remain in their former condition. This is not without its advantages. A sudden revolution in the social condition of such multitudes is not desirable — especially as other Hindus are unwilling to educate them — or a complete upturning of the arrangements of society, but fair, steady progress and gradual development as the times improve, and as diligence, moral character, and natural ability develop themselves.
With the spread of civilisation and education, and an increased demand for labour, these classes are able to procure somewhat better terms from their employers, or are falling in with other employments and other masters, and society is slowly coming somewhat nearer to a healthy state. END of QUOTE
Even though Rev. Matteer does seem to think that giving the lower castes the liberty to improve slowly would improve matters, the fact is that it did not improve the social system. They improved. At the cost of others. The Christian Church became a powerful tool of aggrandisement for them, as it moved with a very discernible location of power and centre. When the English rule departed from Malabar, tens of thousand of forest lands were simply wiped out by the newly emerged converted to Christianity folks. They simply proved that once they get an avenue to escape and grow, they would. However, it is quite doubtful if this was the development that Rev. Matteer had in mind.
For, it was worse than the land reforms that the Kerala government enacted. In that case, the serfs became the landlords and the landlords perished into penury. In a feudal language nation, in many households, it must have been an occasion of ‘respectful’ locations simply eroding away one fine morning. Like an IPS officer suddenly told that he or she is nothing, other than a common person. Communication routes simply would go haywire.
In the case of the settler Christian folks, they entered the Malabar forest lands with some formal or informal evangelical leadership to guide them. Yet, the other forest folks who were living inside the forests, who were also actually of their kinds, but without any organised support, were molested in all ways.
QUOTE: The Pulayars and Pariahs who have been Christianized are being educated by the Missionary Societies, towards the secular instruction supplied by whom grants-in-aid are made by the Sirkar, rather than admit these low-castes into their schools. END of QUOTE
Rev. Matteer did not really understand the repulsions that feudal languages evoke. In fact, currently in England there are many places where the native English folks simply flee the area when they feel they would be forced to be part of a society where feudal language speaker are going to be in significant numbers.
QUOTE: Dewan Sashiah Sastri gave it as his opinion that “Though slavery has been abolished, it is doubtful whether it has tended to improve the condition of the serf classes very materially; freed from oppression on the one hand, they have lost to some extent the paternal care and protection they used to receive from their masters.” END of QUOTE
This was actually only a temporary situation. Once the feeling that they can get away with it, the lower castes would lowly start asserting themselves.
QUOTE: “These proclamations and advancing civilisation doubtless have made a marked improvement in their favour; and yet one has only to make a slight inquiry to find that, even in the present day, their condition is most wretched and pitiable, and that in some important points these edicts are a dead letter. We are assured that in many parts in the eastern districts of Travancore slavery practically exists, and that many are unaware of their emancipation. END of QUOTE
Even after statutory proclamations banning slavery was there, slavery was in force. These are facts that cannot be wiped out of historical references, by cunning Indian academic ‘geniuses’.
QUOTE: In some places they are not allowed on the public roads; in others, they are driven from them to seek shelter in the jungle on the approach of a high caste man; hence it is most difficult for them to travel from place to place. Should they be engaged in work in or near the roads, they are compelled to place leaves as a mark to warn the high-caste of their presence, who, on seeing it, shout for them to retire while they pass. They may not approach within 64 feet of a high-caste man. END of QUOTE
Repulsion for people who do work or do business which are marked as lower quality is still there in the public mind. Persons who are doing vegetable selling, being real estate agents, vendors, and such, and those doing various kinds of works are generally Avan or Aval, while those who work in government and are corrupt to the core, are Adheham, Saar, Maadam etc. These words are sieving the society into different levels which may slowly turn out to be new castes. If the government employees can somehow make their work hereditary. There is hectic conspiracy going on to somehow manage it.
QUOTE: They are still not allowed to enter any public markets, and hence stand at great disadvantage in selling any little produce they may happen to possess; and consequently are kept in a state of poverty. They are not permitted to build their houses near the public roads; nor are they, as a rule, allowed to avail themselves of the Sirkar ferry-boats to cross swollen rivers.
We have used the phrase “not allowed” throughout, for we can find no written laws by which such privileges are forbidden them. END of QUOTE
Actually there is no written law that the people of Kerala should use the word Saar to a government official. In fact, it is the public servants who have show ‘respect’ and deference to the public. However, unwritten codes are there powerfully encrypted in Malayalam languages. Actually the Indian judicial apparatus is a foolish one. Everyone knows that the Constitution of India protects the dignity of the citizen. Yet, the courts which are perfectly aware that the people are dehumanised by lower indicant words in the Indian feudal languages, do not have the least daring to mention it. What is the use of such donkey courts in this nation?
QUOTE: “It is here that the practice of buying and selling the right of servitude still prevails. But it is clandestinely carried on; and the buyer and seller are well aware that the right parted with, or acquired, cannot be enforced by law. Legally the transaction is quite invalid............ The fetters have been broken, but the emancipated labourer, from attachment, habit, or helplessness, chooses to continue where he was............... European Missionaries have been instrumental in gradually awakening the liberated bondman to a sense of freedom and self-reliance.” END of QUOTE
It is like corruption and bribes. Both are outlawed. Yet bribes and corruption are part and parcel of all official work. Recently my own mother who had retired as the Inspector General of Registration many years ago, wanted to register around five documents of very minor stamp duty. She was informed by the document writer that for each document, Rs. 500 per document was the minimum to be paid as bribe to the Sub Registrar’s office. However, since she and they were of the same feather, in the sense to the official in the office, she was from their own hierarchy, nothing was paid.
Apart from that, again Rev. Matteer mentions European Missionaries, when it is English Missionaries who need mention. Other European Missionaries simply were piggy ridding on English endeavours.
QUOTE: The poor slaves were to the Sudra landholders what the damsel of Philippi was to her masters. By way of enticement, they hold out promises of increased wages. They pretend to sympathize with them in straits by loans and small presents, or let them hold bits of paddy land, occasionally supplying them with seed, plough, and bullocks. They secretly persuade their friends to raise up lawsuits against the slaves, and soon after stand as mediators to effect a compromise. END of QUOTE
Rev. Matteer has mentioned a great truth about the deceit that is there in the common mood of this land. And it has no link with caste as such. Everyone is wary of others improving. They go out of the way to help, and to misguide and to lead to doom and failure. May be it is a mood that the Thuggees of the northern areas of the Subcontinent also had.
QUOTE: On the occasion of any high official passing through the country, these poor people are forced to give, without payment, such things as fowls, eggs, milk, straw, &c., which they can hardly spare without great inconvenience and distress. Should they refuse to part with their property, they are beaten, taken to the local officers as disloyal, and shut up in the Tanna (prison). END of QUOTE
QUOTE: “A Pariah got a piece of jungle as mortgage from a Sudra, cleared and planted the land, so that it became worth about a hundred rupees. Then the Sudra called the man and told him to bring his document, along with sixty fanams, for which, he assured him, he should get the land registered in the man’s name. The Sudra afterwards produced a new document, assuring the Pariah (who could not read) that it was the proper deed, and he received it with pleasure. But soon afterwards, the land he had cleared was registered in another person’s name, and taken from the poor man, who was unable to obtain any redress. The Sudras in these parts, being connected with the police clerks, can get anything they like done against these poor people, who are easily cheated and oppressed.”END of QUOTE
QUOTE: A Sudra conversing with an Evangelist, said: — “Kuravars cannot learn anything — that is quite impossible.”
The teacher called several of his congregation to him and bade them repeat their Scripture lessons. When the man heard this, he was astonished and confounded:”END of QUOTE
The fact is that even the lowest caste in the subcontinent, if given, pristine English education by Englanders, will show remarkable social development.
QUOTE: I saw the newly built house of a Christian, who was fifteen years ago a slave, and the whole of his property then did not exceed three rupees. Now his house itself is worth Rs. 1,000, and he has besides landed property and cattle worth more than Rs. 500.”END of QUOTE
Now the slave had literally become a slave owner. There is basically no change in the social design. Only a replacement of persons.
QUOTE: The former slave-owners grudged, as they still do, the emancipation of the serfs, fearing the ruin of their agricultural interests; and sought to hinder freedom and keep the Pulayars down in every possible way. They laboured to prevent the slaves getting lands, reclaimed by themselves, registered in their own names as private property, and appropriated adjacent gardens actually cleared by them. They terrified their serfs by absurd and wicked reports,”END of QUOTE
o envisage a future in which their slaves would become the slave owners and they themselves the slaves, in a feudal language environment would be quite terrifying.
QUOTE: Last year a native Christian, who was formerly of the class described, erected a house of two stories, worth a thousand rupees. This same man, who a few years ago was prohibited from owning any other property than a wretched mud house, now owns besides his house other property, valued at over a thousand rupees, and pays rent and taxes to the amount of 250 rupees a year. Another case is mentioned of a man once a slave to a cruel Brahman, who now owns a house worth Rs. 350, and other property worth about a thousand.”END of QUOTE
The reference to the ‘cruel Brahman’ is quite interesting. For, in feudal languages, there is no specific quality to a man. It depends on whom he is dealing with. The same ‘cruel’ man would be a very gracious and loyal confident of someone above him.
QUOTE: They have now cattle of their own, and lease lands from the Sudras for cultivation. Some Sudras even work on the lands of those who were once their slaves. One is now bullock driver for his former slave.””END of QUOTE
There is real tragedy in the lines above. A tragedy which the gullible mind of an Englishman cannot sense. When positions get reversed, the very language of communication changes. In fact, it is like looking at the same place from two different sides of the places. ‘You’ which had been ‘respectful’ would become ‘derogative’. The same is the case with other words such as He, She, Him, Her, Hers, His etc. It is a satanic change of location. Even now, Englanders are not aware of these evil codes. Which more or less have been let loose in their own nation.
QUOTE: It was not suffered to proceed without great opposition on the part of the owners, not only Hindus, but Syrians : the slaves who came to learn were oppressed and cruelly maltreated, and those who ventured to teach them were treated as utterly polluted, and expelled from society.”END of QUOTE
Both Hindus as well as Syrian Christians were alarmed to see their slaves classes improving. Actually it was the repulsion shown to these converted Christians by the Syrian Christians that must have been one of the reasons that the converts moved to the forest lands of Malabar. They who had been tied to the soil for years were quite able to clear the forest lands. However, it was an act that the erstwhile English administration had prohibited. The destruction of virgin forests.
QUOTE: A separate hospital has now been built for low castes, but it is rather difficult of access, and a long detour is to be taken through the rice fields, the distance by road being about a quarter of a mile. A poor slave has been known to let his child die — and they love their offspring — rather than undergo the delay and chance of a beating in a visit to the hospital.”END of QUOTE
One need to understand the terror in which the higher castes held the lower castes. They who wouldn’t kill or harm a poisonous snake in their own household couldn’t bear the sight of a lower caste man. Actually there is need for more comprehensive understanding of this phenomenon.
QUOTE: The upper-cloth covering the bosom is taken off before a superior, and tied either round the waist or the head. END of QUOTE
Even though modern Keralites may find it difficult to imagine such usages, I must admit that I have seen females of the lower castes walking around with a bare thorth on their chest, in the 1960s. That is about a 100 years after this book was written.
Another thing to be noted is that even though a Nair female wouldn’t have much concern about displaying her nude breast to a Brahmin male, she wouldn’t be able to bear it if an Ezhava male or female were to address her by name.
The terror is more. As to an Ezhava or lower caste male casting profane glances at the nudity, the despoilment would be more terrible. For, she is becoming an aval in his profane mental work. Actually this theme has more powerful substance in these current days. For, when the nudity of females from English nations are being processed by the profane minds of feudal language speakers, there is a indignity happening which cannot be sensed in English.
QUOTE: Rev. J. H. Hawksworth, writing in 1855 of the shameful attempts made by the slaves’ owners to deter the Pulayars from attending Christian instruction, tells how a schoolhouse was maliciously burnt down a second time, and a slave cruelly beaten and left lying senseless for attending it. His own master sent him a day or two afterwards to prefer a complaint at the police office, and he called to ask the gentleman how he could get within shouting distance of the officials.
A slave acquainted with the neighbourhood was sent to accompany the complainant. They had to pass through rice fields, jungles and gardens, keeping out of reach of the owners. In this they failed; a man caught them and gave one of them a thrashing, while the other escaped. The attempt to reach the police office was abandoned for the day. A second attempt was subsequently made, and resulted in a second thrashing. However, the complaint was ultimately lodged, the slave’s deposition was taken at the top of his voice, and all attempts to get the case beyond that stage proved abortive.”END of QUOTE
Basically the Travancore areas do have a lot street violence, most of which are spontaneous.
QUOTE: So also a distinguished native clergyman, the Rev. George Matthan, in 1856, relating a case of cruel beating of a slave by his master for keeping the Sabbath day, says, “I thought it would be of no use to complain to the authorities; for I despair of justice being obtained, from the general corruption of the courts of law in this country, and from the jealous eye with which any attempt to raise the slaves would be viewed by the officials.””END of QUOTE
Corruption was and is rampant in Travancore. English ruled Malabar district did not have much corruption. I can vouch for this statement. However, after Travancore and Cochin was joined with Malabar to form Kerala in 1957, Malabar also went corrupt. Many other things also went from bad to worse.
The actual fact is that almost all the nations and places which were given removed from the English Empires, known as the British Empires went into deep social and administrative problems. Currently all the spokesmen for these places are the corrupt officialdom and their children, or the traditional feudal classes. The only difference is that the many traditional lower classes have also joined the above classes. However, due to the inflow of technology, there is a general feeling that things have improved, when actually every system has gone corrupt. During the English rule period, there was a movement towards quality and refinement. Now, both these attributes have no premium value. Rudeness and allegiance to corrupt officialdom are aimed for by those who want to arrive on top of the social system.
Caste system Now, let us go into the theme of caste system and associated social restrictions as mentioned in this book. This theme lies in close connection to the subject of slavery, slave classes, enslavement and slave master class. It may be noted that even though everyone does blame the Brahmin for acting as the superiors, and suppressing the others, the fact is that every one of the castes suppresses the castes that are below it. And views them with repulsion.
The other only difference in the Brahmins is that they do not have any caste superior to them. However there are hierarchies among the various sub-castes inside the Brahmins. The second point is that there is a wrong feeling that the spirit that spurs caste division has vanished. The fact is that due to written laws that forbid caste based division of human beings, the old divisions are slowly vanishing. However, the codes that creates the hierarchy is still there in the feudal languages.
For instance, if one were to examine the hierarchy among the female students in a vernacular school in Kerala, one can find a Cheehi (elder sister) – Nee relationship at every age difference relationship. This starts from class one and continues indefinitely upward to whatever senior age available. The issue of a Nee \o level girl trying to act equal to a senior Cheechi will be snubbed, and that too brutally in words. It would even be violently if it is possible.
Among the boys, in a vernacular school, the Chettan Nee hierarchy can be seen.
Now, the fact is that this segmentation of human beings is there in all relationship, including that of professions. There are professions that need to be ‘respected’, like that of government peon or officer, and those that need to be snubbed by them, like that of taxi driver, shop boy, labourer etc. There are specific words in both Malayalam as well as in the erstwhile Malabar language, which signify ennoblement or dirt.
Even though Rev. Matteer does blame the higher castes, the fact is that no one can be blamed as such. It is like the computer that has a virus inside it. The virus software will make the computer behave maliciously. Similarly if Rev. Matteer speaks Malayalam or the Malabar language, he will also become infected. However since he is from England, his superiority to the local systems will make his mind not much affected. And others would usually lend him the ‘respect’ side of the language. If he is being extended the snubbing or dirtying side of the words, he also would be affected. Especially if the lower castes were to use lower indicant words.
Actually this is now happening in England, wherein immigrants from feudal language nations and societies have barged in. They are not keen of giving the ‘respect’ part of their language to the native-English. The native-English persons are naturally perturbed. Especially those who are seen as inferior in the feudal languages. That is children, ordinary class employees &c. At times, these affected persons react violently.
The psychologists and psychiatrist who do not know anything about feudal languages and their effect on human mind, speaks utter nonsense about what went wrong and try to explain the violent reaction as some mental problem in the affected person. Actually the problem is in the feudal languages of the immigrants. But that information is not there in their insipid psychology textbooks. READ: MARCH of the EVIL EMPIRES
Inside the vernacular schools, teachers are the new Brahmins. They address the students with the same words earlier used for the lower castes. Words such as Nee നീ (Inhi) ഇഞ്ഞി, Avan അവൻ (Oan) ഓൻ, Aval അവൾ(Oal) ഓൾ, Avattakal അവറ്റകൾ (Aittingal) ഐറ്റിങ്ങൾ, Eda എടാ, Edi എടി, Enthada എന്താടാ, Enthadi എന്താടി &c. The teachers have to be addressed with suffixes of ‘respect’ such as Saar km¿ (Persian word for Head person), Teacher (English word for teacher). Ex: Govindansaar, Radhateacher &c.
When the teachers come inside the class, students have to get up, in the same manner the lower castes had to show ‘respect’. Even though, uncovering the bosom by the females is not in vogue now, if the system continues like this, a time will arrive, when the female student will have to uncover the bosom when male teachers come in. For ultimately the patriotism is calling for all to copy the traditional systems of the land.
QUOTE: Formerly we were not allowed to erect them close to the road, lest the Brahmans should be polluted by the near approach of Christians of humble birth. END of QUOTE
Now, it is the higher official classes who cannot bear the proximity of the common man. That much improvement or change is there. I have had the occasion of seeing people being pushed away by peons when the Cannanore district collector, was coming up the stairway in the collectorate. During the English rule times, the Collectors were not trained to see the common man as repulsive objects. Now it is the standard norm.
The official class more or less gets a kings ransom as pay and pension. It cannot be otherwise. For the language is feudal. The ordinary man has to be made dirt in every sense of the word.