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NATIVE LIFE IN TRAVANCORE
VED from VICTORIA INSTITUTIONS
Commentary by
It is foretold! The torrential flow of inexorable destiny!
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QUOTE: The Sudra masters give some medicines; and would sometimes on an emergency, visit their slaves, purifying themselves afterwards. When physicians of other castes are applied to they charge very heavily, such as on account of tottukuli, “bathing after having touched” a patient of this class END of QUOTE


The love and affection that was purported to have existed between the feudal class overlords and their terribly suppressed slave-serfs had once upon a time been extolled in many local writings of Kerala, with the purpose of praising the ancient culture here.

QUOTE: Even the Syrian Christians were sometimes most cruel in their treatment of their slaves. Rev. H. Baker, fils was acquainted with a case in which a slave ran away from his master, but afterwards returned with presents, begging forgiveness. He was beaten severely, covered with hot ashes, and starved till he died. END of QUOTE


Actually this quote would be greeted with much satisfaction by the Syrian Christians. For it stands as a piece of evidence that they were not the enslaved classed of the place, but were superiors. I have heard the claims from both the Mappillas of Malabar (Muslims) as well as from the Mappillas of Travancore (Syrian Christians) that Mappilla means ‘Maha Pillai’, that is, Great Pillai. Pillai is suffix used by a particular kind of Nairs. As Nairs are supposed to be higher castes, they take this to mean that they were direct converts from higher caste Hindus.


However, facts are not quite so clear. In this book the Syrian Christians are not described as a high quality class of people, even though the writer is a Christian. There are words that mention them also as low class population. Not much higher in quality than the rest of the folks here.


Beyond that it might seem quite silly that both the Malabar Muslims as well as the Christians are picking up the same logic claims of being descendants of Maha Pillais. For, in Malabar the Mappillas are basically two. One the North Malabar Mappillas who are generally mentioned as the descendants of Arab sailors who had a family on the Calicut side coastal areas, apart from one in their own native land.


The second group of Mappillas are the converts from the Makkathaya Thiyyas of South Malabar. Even though both these Mappillas are seen as one by many others, they are culturally different. Even though their religion and mixing of blood has erased a lot of differences.


QUOTE: Slaves were not only bought and sold outright, but also mortgaged like lands. Female slaves were valued at double price, on account of the “produce”— the children— half of which went to the seller and half to the purchaser.


It is quite improbable that the females slaves would be valued not only for their ‘produce’, but also as a source for free fornication. Even though such a thing is not seen mentioned, I have heard many stories of a similar vein from many households in interior areas of the Malabar. It is quite possible that such things were in vogue in Travancore also. As also elsewhere in the Subcontinent.


Mixing of blood and genes would be there due to this also. Basically it points to the fact that caste elevations had no much connection to genes and chromosomes. It was more powerfully encoded in the languages codes, in the manner in which it affected persons in each location in the social hierarchy.


In 1852, before emancipation, the Rev. George Matthan wrote that the price of a slave was usually Rs. 6, but in Mallapalli, Rs. 18.


Most people in India do not know that England stands in a very unique position in the world in many ways. There is no history of any kingdom or Empire that declared that the slaves were free, and enforced it other than England, at the very height of its power as the headquarters of a world government. In many nations which were under the British rule, compensation was paid to the slave owners to free the slaves. However, there was no thought of returning the freed slaves to their homeland. For it is quite possible that no slaves would like to return to their native lands, where they would again arrive at slavish locations.


Emancipation of slaves in the Travancore kingdom was due to the insistence of the English rulers in Madras Presidency. However, the terror that the local society felt when the erstwhile slaves were being freed was not quite understood by the English rulers. In many cases, it had the effect of insisting that the domestic servant maid in a Malayalee household should be allowed to sit at the dinning table and eat the food along with the others in the household. Or to insist that the servant or peon should address the IAS officer by his name. Even now, no Malayalee, from any class or caste would condone such a situation.


Being inside the safe confines of a planar language called English, the English administrators really did not understand what it was that was irking the people in this subcontinent. Many of their mutual repulsions had no logic when viewed from English.

QUOTE: This tribe once formed a State of considerable power in Madras and Mysore, where their descendants are now musicians, snake charmers, basket-makers, cultivators, or robbers. Small bodies of them were driven into the jungles of Travancore, where they have sunk in civilisation and fallen into the position of predial slaves. END of QUOTE


There is a slight fact that might miss the reader’s attention. Even socially ‘great’ personage, who move out outside their domain can be treated like dirt, in areas where their prominence is not acknowledged. That is a ‘Sar’ or ‘Adheham’ can become can a Nee and Avan among people who are do not chance to get a proper introduction of this person, or are not ready to accept the introduction of this person’s superiority.


QUOTE: A few Ulladars in the low country say that they or their fathers were stolen in childhood and brought down as slaves. END of QUOTE


These kinds of things are happening even now in India. There is a huge market for stolen females in Bombay, which runs with full support of the Bombay Civic and police authorities. No one dares to catch these officials and hang them. All talk is about the ‘evil British rulers’ who stole our riches. Children parrot such nonsense.


QUOTE: The flesh of cattle left dead by the road-side is their perquisite, and it is their partaking of this food that excites the abhorrence of ordinary Hindus, who venerate the cow. END of QUOTE


These kinds of information would be quite repulsive to the modern day Keralite, both from the original castes as well as from the converted to Christian groups. Everyone hides behind a fake fable of a great antiquity of theirs, when their forefathers were great Vedic scholars and Aryans.


QUOTE: These remarkable people are very rude and primitive in manners, and are generally regarded as the aborigines of the country. END of QUOTE


Lower classes use the tool of rudeness, loudness and repulsive manners to achieve equality with the senior classes. These would give a little respite from their suppression, and chance to arrive at an equality. However, in modern day government schools, the teachers train their wards in these techniques as a shortcut to higher social status.

QUOTE: They have to wander about in seasons of scarcity in search of wild yams, which they boil and eat on the spot, and are thorough gluttons, eating all they can get at any time, then suffering want for days. Women are filthy in their habits, the sick are uncared for, and mortality amongst the children is great. END of QUOTE


This is the actually the social design in the local feudal vernacular.


QUOTE: In North Travancore, their condition seems at the lowest, as they enter farther into the Malayalam country, and have had fewer opportunities of escape from their caste degradation and bitter servitude. END of QUOTE


There is actually a technique to escape social degradation. It is by assigning respect to each other, and on insisting respect for their own fellowmen from others. However, it is not easy to arrange this. For the others would put a wedge among them, so that instead of assigning respect to each other, they would hasten to disparage each other. This a technical code available in feudal languages. In fact, the evil effect of this social splitting has been seen in the Arabian nations. It is slowly arriving in English nations also, as feudal language speakers also set up their beachheads inside the geography and start targeting the local natives there.


QUOTE: “These people want to make you all Christians, then the devils will desert you so that you shall become the prey of wild beasts. If you learn letters the English will carry you away to foreign lands in ships.” END of QUOTE


Basically the last line is a terrible indoctrination used by the Indian social leaders who fear that if the common man learns English, they would step above their suppressed locations. So, students in vernacular schools are told not to learn English. It is dangerous and ‘you will become enslaved’. The crude, age-old cunning of the new master class, (the feudal language speaking teachers), who places the student at the level of the lower castes, and themselves at the level of the ‘thumburans’.


QUOTE: Through ages of oppression by the native rulers these unfortunate people are virtually in a state of slavery, out of which it is impossible for them to redeem themselves, being unalterably bound by the system of government impressment for forced labour to their present residences, employments, and status. END of QUOTE


In feudal language systems, it is not an enjoyable thing to work for others. Even though, in many cases, it is much better than sitting in isolation. However, to get people to work in such repulsive locations of the language, there has to be populations kept forcibly in such confines.


QUOTE: They fear also to go to the Sirkar hospitals, which, indeed, are scarcely for the low castes. Very few have learnt to read, and those only in Christian schools. END of QUOTE


Learning to read, and that too English, is a great tool for social functioning. However, even this idea has been manipulated to mean an education system which gives jobs for totally unfit persons to waste around 20 years of the youthful generations. To enhance the value of this useless education, in which even proper English is not learned, the teaching classes have prevailed upon the government to make such useless education as the minimum qualification for most jobs.


Even to go abroad and work this nonsensical certification is required. It has become like the old reservation of government jobs only for the higher castes. Now a person with adequate knowledge and calibre, including in English cannot opt for government job, unless he or she has wasted some 15 to 20 years under a totally idiotic education system.


QUOTE: When the Valans converse with high caste people, they must use the old terms of humiliation and self-depreciation. END of QUOTE


Actually Rev. Metteer missed the comprehensive point. The fact is that in feudal languages, the lower person has to compulsorily exhibit a pose of humiliation and self-depreciation. However, the effect is more when persons of higher refinement are forced to display it to lower refinement. For instance, in the modern day Kerala, the officials are of the lower quality persons, generally. It is terrible to see people who are definitely of higher social standards stand in a obsequious pose in front of them to get their official papers from them. A pose of dignity would be taken as an insult by the menial class government peons, clerks and ‘officers’.


QUOTE: This system of forced labour is as oppressive as it is injurious to the industry of the poorer classes, and is of little real benefit to the State. The work indispensably required should be done by regular paid rowers and watchmen, and by the government servants to whom it legitimately belongs; END of QUOTE


There is no need to think of national or state interest in a feudal language society. Every man is for himself and his family. What is required is the suppression of others. Whether the nation or state improves is never a point for contemplation.


QUOTE: Pariahs were permitted only to have a single coverless basket in which the wedding cloth would be seen; now being free, they naturally imitate other people. END of QUOTE


A single word of address by the superior persons on the man, his wife and children as Nee or Inhi (Malabar language) will breech all rights to dignity and private zones, that are there in a lower placed person. When the henchmen of the superior castes also use it, it is real damnation.


QUOTE: Many of these females live and die unmarried : yet, strange to say, the corpse undergoes all the ceremonies of marriage. To prevent their falling into unchastity, they are closely shut up and guarded. Occasionally they do fall, and then are irrevocably expelled from family, friends, and society. In such case they must join the lower castes, to whom they were formerly sold as slaves and concubines, END of QUOTE


For higher classes females in a feudal language social set up, it is a choice between seclusion, equivalent to imprisonment or the other terror, being sold to the lower castes or being within their ambit of lower indicant word definitions. However, in modern days, every female desperately tries to arrive at higher professional qualification like that of a doctor, wherein ‘respect’ is assured. However, the seclusion remains.


QUOTE: The social circumstances and daily life of the poor low-caste or slave women, who are obliged to labour for their daily support, and sometimes have nothing to eat on any day on which they remain idle, present a direct contrast to the comfort of these just described, as might be expected from the condition of extreme and enforced degradation in which they have been so long kept, and the contempt and abhorrence with which they are universally regarded. Yet they are human as well as their superiors. They work hard, suffer much from sickness and often from want of food, and generally, like all slaves, also form evil habits of thieving, sensuality, drunkenness, and vice, which increase or produce disease and suffering. END of QUOTE


In feudal language ambience, when a person is assigned the lowest indicant words, in the sense of deprecation, there is no sympathy for him or her. Only when a higher indicant word person (honoured person) is seen to be suffering does anyone feel bad about it.


QUOTE: Very early in the morning these women go with a pot or a leaf bucket to their masters, asking for food and instructions respecting the day’s work. They are kept toiling in manuring, planting, or reaping through the day in the agricultural season, mostly with the blazing sun beating on the bare head, and the feet in mire or water, and return in the evening, fatigued and hungry, to their wretched huts to boil their rice and eat it with salt and pepper. The Pariahs eat the carcases of cows and other animals which have died of old age or disease, even when almost putrid. These are cut up for distribution by the females principally, and after partaking of this disgusting food, their odour is insufferable. END of QUOTE


Squalor is part of being on the lower indicant words. In fact in any place in the world, where feudal language speakers assemble to form a society, a particular percentage of the population has to necessarily be in the squalor part of the society. These things are encoded in the language codes.


QUOTE: They are without the social amenities of life, not allowed to enter the markets or use the public roads without impediment, and were formerly bought and sold like cattle. END of QUOTE


Well, I have heard people mention the lower classes, not necessarily the lowest castes, as some kind of superior animals. In fact, I have heard something similar from the mouth of one Christian setter in Malabar, when he mentioned the lower castes of Malabar as Negritos, who according to him were bereft of common intelligence. It was quite obvious that he was quite unaware of his own family roots, back in Travancore of some 100 years back. This is also a simple proof that caste based looks as such are not connected to genetic codes, but simply the designs enforced by the feudal language.


QUOTE: Is it not surprising that the sufferings of these unfortunate and despised people do not move the hearts of their wealthy and educated countrymen, and that no Hindu practical philanthropist arises to labour for their regeneration and enlightenment? END of QUOTE


Even now, there are around 80% of the Indian population is living in dire needs and squalor. I have personally seen the terrible living conditions of people in the northern Hindi belt areas. Yet, they do not evoke any sympathy in the higher classes, other than contempt and repulsion. As to the lower classes themselves, they are crude and mostly repulsive in behaviour and civic standards. Their salvation will never arrive through any Indian agency. For, whoever ostensibly tries to improve them, they are still kept in the dirt part of the languages.


There is always a terror in the Indian social reformers that the lower classes would improve to the level of addressing them by name and using the words of equality with them. Equality with them would be equivalent to social death to the social reformers. For all of them is just another version of the fake known as Gandhi. Only the English rulers could really make any difference. Yet, they are vilified by the current day cunning rulers of India.


QUOTE: The labour of the previously enslaved castes, which had hitherto been almost valueless, being remunerated only by a few measures of rice daily, became of as great money value as that of others; caste was nothing in the eyes of the European planter.


Accordingly, Pulayars, Pariahs, Vedars, and other lowcastes began to obtain employment and good pay; even their children earned wages for weeding, picking, and other light work, to which they were better suited than adults; and Ilavars and Shanars working with them in the mountains, far from the critical observation of caste neighbours, saw little need to maintain the troublesome restrictions of caste by which they were bound in the plains. The Sudra masters complained of the planters taking away their labourers. END of QUOTE


No great Indian academic ‘genius’ historian would has the calibre to see this type of information, as they busy themselves drawing their huge salaries and conspiring for more.


QUOTE: In the absence of land tax, the kings of the country had considerable domains assigned to them, which were cultivated by slaves, and yielded a sufficient revenue for household expenses. END of QUOTE


Slaves! And there is not an iota of mention of slaves in the Indian subcontinent. All talk is about the fake slaves of the US.


QUOTE: Slavery in the most unmitigated form, that is, united with caste restrictions, prevailed. A large proportion of the population were actual slaves of the soil, while others of the proscribed classes were in a condition but little removed from this. “The rajah might sell into slavery persons of various castes who had committed any crime “by which they lost caste, or were liable to capital punishment.” They also laid hold of vagabonds and sold them. Slaves were sometimes exported to other parts of India. END of QUOTE


Slavery in its clearest form!


QUOTE: Kuppa katcka, ‘refuse offering,” was so called because it was the meanest tax — really a house tax — one fanam for each hut. Pariahs, Pallars, and some Shanars paid this. END of QUOTE


The dirty sounding vernacular words and names were kept for the lower classes. In earlier times, the lower classes were the lower castes. Now almost all persons with low financial status and has no connection to the officialdom is a lower class man. They are the Avattakal or Aiyittingal ഐറ്റിങ്ങൾ of Kerala. For the officialdom, they are the Kuppathotti class, whom they mention as the Avan/Oan, Aval/Oal etc. Kuppa കുപ്പ¸ mean garbage.


QUOTE: When looking with admiration at the noble examples of Indian architecture and engineering — temples, forts, public buildings — the first thought that sometimes occurs to us is of the vast amount of misery and expenditure of human life imposed on the multitudes, as in Egypt, who did the unskilled labour. END of QUOTE


Even the Taj Mahal, apart from the innumerable forts and memorials and palaces in this subcontinent were built upon the labour of people who were not statutorily slaves, but actually slaves.


QUOTE: Such was the sad condition of millions of human beings throughout Malabar for hundreds, if not thousands, of years. END of QUOTE


Not just Malabar, but in most places in the world till the advent of the English rule. Even in the US, it was the coming of the Englanders that saved the Red Indians in that area from around 300 to 400 years of terrible slavery under the Portuguese and Spanish Conquistadors.


QUOTE: The Pulayan was, therefore, in an infinitely worse condition than ever the American slave was. END of QUOTE


The American slaves was getting free British education, good dresses, English language ambience, right to sit on a chair, right to address his or her master class by their name with a Mr., Mrs., or Miss prefixed, and an communication ambience in which pejorative indicant codes were not there. An equality with their master class that cannot even be imagined in the Indian Subcontinent.


QUOTE: Slaves were so little valued by the higher classes, that in cases of repeated and destructive breaches in banks of rivers and tanks they ascribed the catastrophe to the displeasure of some deity or devil; and propitiated his anger by throwing a slave into the breach and quickly heaping earth on him. END of QUOTE


There is much evidence found in other books that mention that human sacrifice was prevalent in this geographical area. In the utter nonsensical claim of a Vedic heritage, there is no time for jingoistic persons to think about these terrible antiquities.


QUOTE: Slavery in Malabar doubtless took its rise historically from the conquest of the aboriginal inhabitants by invaders and settlers from the north...................... Every wealthy man, and even individuals of inferior castes, had a number of bondsmen born in slavery. Syrian Christians also possessed slaves. END of QUOTE


Syrian Christians will be quite happy to hear that they were the slave-masters, and not the slaves. Actually in this geography, it is doubtful with there was really any demarking line between the two as generation of mixing of blood went on happening. Either due to selling as slaves, or by various other onslaughts of time and vicissitudes. Everyman thinks of his own narrow escape from the trauma, rather than taking steps to remove it. For in feudal languages, each individual is actually a puny being, with no real individual capacity other than what his or her social position bestows.


QUOTE: “The condition of the predial or rustic slaves of Malabar cannot bear a favourable comparison with that of household or domestic slaves among the Mahommedans. The latter are received with them into a fraternity; and are no longer kept at a suspicious distance. In Arabia their treatment is said to be like that of children, and they go by the appellation of sons with their masters. They often rise to the most confidential station in the family; and the external appearance of the master and slave is hardly distinguishable, they are so much upon a par.” END of QUOTE


Here again Rev. Matter is using the word ‘Malabar’ to denote Travancore. However, his observation can be correct with regard to the social set up among the Muslims. There is the basic tenet in Islam that human beings are equal. May be the slightly planar nature of the Arabic language also support this. However when viewed from this perspective, no Muslim who speaks feudal languages can be defined as perfectly an Islam.


QUOTE: This time of year was called Pula pidi kalam, Gundert says that this time of terror was in “the month Karkadam (15th July to 15th August), during which high caste women may lose caste if a slave happen to throw a stone at them after sunset.” So the slave owners had their own troubles to bear from this institution. END of QUOTE


Generally the lower placed persons, even a peon, knows the power he or she hold. All he or she has to do to paste dirt on a higher placed person is not to acknowledge the other. When he or she is supposed to stand up in a pose of reverence, if he or she doesn’t do that, other person stands insulted. If he or she refers to the higher person as an Avan/Oan or Aval/Oal, then the insult is beyond words.


Once bracketed into a lower indicant word by the lower person, it is literally like being placed below the lower person. For instance, I have heard of police Inspectors in near Nadapuram (Calicut district) mentioning youthful IPS ‘officers‘ from outside the state, as Oan ഓൻ. Like: Oanokke yenthariyaam? ഓനൊക്കെയെന്തറിയാം? The degradation is not directly felt because it is mentioned from afar, and the rigidity of the police hierarchy does not allow the dismantling of the hierarchy. Yet, there is a qualitative spoiling of the system.


QUOTE: The Pariahs in North Travancore formerly kidnapped females of high caste, whom they were said to treat afterwards in a brutal manner. Their custom was to turn robbers in the month of February, just after the ingathering of the harvest, when they were free from field work, and at the same time excited by demon worship, dancing, and drink.


They broke into the houses of Brahmans and Nayars, carrying away their children and property, in excuse for which they pretended motives of revenge rather than interest, urging a tradition that they were once a division of the Brahmans, but entrapped into a breach of caste rules by their enemies making them eat beef. These crimes were once committed almost with impunity in some parts, but have now disappeared. Once having lost caste, even by no fault of their own, restoration to home and friends is impossible to Hindus. END of QUOTE


The fact is that to be in the hands of the lower castes also was a terrible experience. Naturally they would have no qualms on using such words as Nee, Edi, Mole etc. on the females. Their side of the terror would be the terrible crudeness of barbarianism. As a sort of retribution.


QUOTE: And what she most thinks of doing is to run to the house of some low people to hide herself, that her relations may not kill her as a remedy for what has happened, or sell her to some strangers, as they are accustomed to do.” END of QUOTE


Naturally, she saves herself by running off to the side where she will be bring in mixing of blood in the newer generations.


QUOTE: “The people are selling their own children, and this for a mere trifle. I hesitate to mention the lowest sum I have heard, but for a quarter of a rupee, and less, they sell their children into slavery to the Muhammadans and others on the seacoast; and these have the means of disposing of them again so as to make much profit — END of QUOTE

The unmentioned fact of slave trade in the Indian Subcontinent. If the slaves were lucky, they would somehow have reached the US coast. Where they and their descendants would have improved over the year. If they were not so lucky, they would end up in the hands of some persons of Asian/African or Continental European slave masters.


QUOTE: Pulayars and others were purchased at Alleppey; and some free children of good caste were also secured, and cruelly compelled to eat with these, so that they lost caste as well as freedom. Colonel Munro reproved this misconduct, and the Muhammadan agent in effecting the purchases, was punished by the native court in Travancore for his crime. END of QUOTE


Colonel Munro was the Diwan only for a brief period. He made the Travancore administration efficient and reduced corruption. Gave freedom to the lower castes.


QUOTE: Colonel Munro had also discovered, in 1812, a number of half-starved and naked natives in irons as slaves at the Dutch settlement at Chunganicherry. The proprietor was a Pondicherry man, and the inhabitants of Chunganicherry persisted in the traffic in slaves in defiance of the proclamation of Government.END of QUOTE


Slavery was rampant everywhere in the subcontinent. The only lesson to be learnt from all this is to take care not to allow oneself or one’s nation to be under the thraldom of feudal language speakers.


QUOTE: that “where the severe Mussulman Government most prevailed, the condition of the slave was the easiest; while his condition is the most abject in those countries where the ancient institutions of the Hindus have been least disturbed, END of QUOTE


Again the truth that Muslim social system was much better than the hierarchy ridden local systems. However, that does not mean that the Hindu lower castes or higher castes would get preferential treatment in a Muslim society. Islamic system is good only for those who belong to it. In that sense, comparing a slave from both systems, the better positioned would be the one in the Islamic system.


Yet, Arabic Muslims are globally known as slave traders. It is quite possible, as mentioned in this book, that the Muslims on the Malabar and Travancore coasts would have acted in collision with them to gather slaves from here for selling elsewhere. Even now, India is not really a safe place for people who are from the lower financial classes.


QUOTE: Only the other day, also, a bride was kidnapped on the way to Mundakayam by a strong party. END of QUOTE


One has to note the word ‘also’.


QUOTE: They are so wretchedly provided with the necessaries of life that the most loathsome things are a treat to them. They are bought and sold like cattle, and are often worse treated. The owners had formerly power to flog them and enchain them, and in some cases to maim them, and even to deprive them of their lives. They are everywhere paid for labour at the lowest possible rate consistent with keeping life. They are valued differently in different places END of QUOTE


They have the right to treat them like Cattle and to flog them! How come no one dares to find out how the upper feudal classes of South Africa treated their own lower classes before the advent of the English-Dutch rule? It is quite possible that the return to Black native rule there would be the beginning of another period of social slavery of the majority blacks of the nation. They would all love to run off to the US, and not to stay in their own nation, where they claim to have achieved freedom.


QUOTE: “About six months ago two children were brought and sold to T. Narayanan : the relatives afterwards came to take them away, but the master would not suffer it.”


“Are slaves sometimes chained and beaten?”


“Not now chained, but sometimes beaten and disabled for work for months.”


“In old age when disabled for work what support is given?”


“No pension or support of any kind.”


“How are children paid?”


“Not having proper food, the children are weak and unable to do hard work, therefore they are not paid any wages until they are fifteen years of age; they are not even allowed to attend the mission school, if their masters can hinder it.” END of QUOTE


The dialogues above are not just about the slaves of yore in the Indian Subcontinent, but of the reality of the social situation of majority people of India now. All economic resources are for the officialdom class, starting from the government peon to the ‘IAS officers’.


QUOTE: he is at liberty to let or transfer his servants as he pleases — to separate the children from the parents, and the wife from the husband — to give them as presents to his friends, or allot them as the wedding dowry of his daughters — to assign them over as a payment for his debts — and in short, as he expressed it, to him they are “as cattle.” Many fell victims to fever, rheumatism, and other diseases; and very few lived to old age. They were but poorly fed, and scantily clothed, and were notorious for drunkenness, dishonesty, and evil passions. END of QUOTE


Even now, this is the state of around 80% of Indian population. Yet, academic textbooks teach of British looting.