Malabar Manual Vol 2
APPENDIX XXI - ERNAD TALUK
By V. Chappu Menon, B.A.
Boundaries.—This taluk comprises the two old taluks of Ernad and Cheranad. It is bounded on the north by Calicut and Wynad, on the east by the Nilgiri district, on the south by Walluvanad and Ponnani, on the west by the sea.
Area. — Eight himdred and eleven square miles, of which 140 square miles, or about one-sixth of the whole extent, may be said to be under cultivation. The remainder consists of waste lands and hilly tracts.
Population.—The total population, according to the census of 1881, was 296,143, of whom 148,521 were males and 147,622 females. Distributed according to sects, the population stands as follows:-
This taluk contains the largest number of Muhammadans usually denominated Mappillas, comprising, as it does, a ratio of 23 per cent of the entire Mappilla population in the district.
The total number of houses in the taluk in 1881 was 60,596, of which 54,415, or about 90 per cent, were occupied and the rest unoccupied.
Physical Aspects. —The country is overrun with woods, hills and mountains. The eastern portion comprehending the Nilambur valley formed by the ghats and the Kunda mountains and the Wavul range extending to Chekkunnanmalai (ചെക്കുന്നൻമല), a high saddle-hill north-east of Ariakode contains teak and other timber in almost inexhaustible quantities and it is mostly from this valley that the largest timber is obtained. The central portion is here and there flat with mountain ridges running in different directions. The western portion, with the exception of a few miles from the coast, which is flat, is undulating intersected in all directions by extensive valleys of wet cultivation.
Mountains and Hills.—The most remarkable hills are—
(1) The Wavul range.
(2) The Chekkumalai or Chekkunnan hill, containing a Trigonometrical Survey station.
(3) The Pantalur hill whose ridge separates the Ernad from Walluvanad taluk.
(4) The Urothmala hill which formed the boundary of the old Cheranad taluk and which contains likewise a Trigonometrical station.
Forests.— Ernad taluk furnishes most valuable timber trees. Various exotics, such as mahogany and rubber trees, castilloa, hevea and ipecacuanha, are being planted and experimented with, and some of them have thoroughly been acclimatised and established there. At Nilambur, these experiments and plantations are under the management of the District Forest Officer located at that station. The following is a list of forests which are under the control of this officer :
The Nilambur teak plantations were first suggested in 1840 by Mr. Conolly, Collector of Malabar, who described their object as being “to replace those forests which had vanished from private carelessness and rapacity—a work too now, too extensive, and too barren of early return to be ever taken up by the native proprietor."
Great difficulty was at first encountered in getting the seed to germinate and many expedients were resorted to. These proved entirely unsuccessful. In 1843, Dr. Roxburgh suggested the method of sowing the seed at the beginning of the rains in shaded beds lightly covered with earth and rotten straw, and this system, which proved a success is now pursued with slight modifications suggested by experience.
The first attempt at planting was made in 1842 and was followed in regular succession under the able management, first of Chathu Menon, the native conservator, who for 20 years carried on the operations, and of Mr. Ferguson, whose skilled and unremitting attention during the long tenure of his office from 1863 to 1883 had brought the plantations to their present pitch.
The “Memorandum on the Conolly Teak Plantations’’, prepared by Mr. Atholl McGregor in 1877 (printed at the Travancore Government Press), and Lieut.Col. Beddome’s "Report upon the Nilambur Teak Plantations”, printed at the Government Press, Madras, in 1878, contain most valuable information in regard to the Nilambur forests. An extract from the former publication is printed at the end of this paper.
Rivers.—The following are the principal rivers in the taluk :
1. The Beypore river (also called the Ponpula or Gold river) which rises in the mountains south of the Naduvattam pass, and after meandering through Wynad, rushes down the ghats into the Nilambur valley, receiving in its devious windings, before reaching Nilambur (a) the Kalakkampula, (b) the Karkurpula, (c) the Sholayar or Cholayar on its right bank and (d) the Karimpula on its left bank. The last named is a formidable river fed by numerous streams rushing down from the crest of the Nilgiri and Kunda mountains.
The union of these streams now forms one considerable river, which runs north of Nilambur, and after receiving in its serpentine windings and course several streams, such as the Kurampula and the Kudirapula, discharges itself finally into the sea at Beypore. The river is navigable all the year round up to Ariakode, but boats go up with ease to Nilambur during the monsoon, and smaller boats proceed even further up to Edakara, about 8 miles north-east of Nilambur. The distance from Calicut to Ariakode by land, according to the Route-book, is 27 miles ; from Ariakode to Edavanna 8 miles, from Edavanna to Nilambur 8 miles ; from Nilambur to Edakkara 8 miles ; and from Edakkara to Nadagani 10 miles.
2. The Kadalhundi (Kadal-tundi) river rises in the southern slopes of the Kunda mountains, enters the taluk near Chappanangadi, meanders westerly with many serpentine windings, and after flowing via Tirurangadi empties itself into the sea at Kadalhundi. One branch of the stream joins the Beypore river opposite to the place of that name and forms the island of Chaliyam.
Like other rivers in Malabar, the Kadalhundi river is known by different names in the different parts of its course, eg., at Malapuram, it is called the Anakayam river ; at Tirurangadi, the Tirurangadi river, etc. The bed of the river is exceedingly narrow and rocky with high banks fringed with wood and groves of areca, and other palms at intervals. Teak and other timber, also rafts of bamboos are floated down to the coast to the depots at Beypore and Kallai near Calicut.
Subdivisions of the Taluk for Administrative Purposes —The taluk is divided into 52 amsams, of which 35 are under the magisterial jurisdiction of the Tahsildar-Magistrate and 17 under the Sub-Magistrate of Tirurangadi.
Previous to the revision1 of the taluk establishments by Mr. Pelly there were 2 taluks, designated Ernad and Cheranad, but in the year 1860 they were amalgamated, a Deputy Tahsildar being appointed for the Cheranad division.
NOTEs: 1. G.Os., dated1st October 1860, No. 1751 and 3rd November 1860, No. 2038. END OF NOTEs
The taluk of Ernad was along with Walluvanad and the magisterial charge of Cheranad entrusted to Mr. Collett, the Assistant Collector and Magistrate, under Collector's proclamation, dated 12th November 1849. He remained in charge till April 1854, when he was appointed Special Assistant Collector and Magistrate and latterly Sub-Judge, Calicut.
In 1856, Mr. E. C. G. Thomas was appointed Special Assistant and was succeeded by Mr. A. MacGregor under the orders of Government, communicated in G.O , dated 20th October 1863, No. 1902. The Special Assistant was transferred to Coimbatore for employment on the Nilgiris and the office was revived, on the recommendation of Mr. MacGregor after the Kolattur outbreak, by G.O, dated 11th October 1873, No. 1629. A further reconstitution took place in 1886, whereby the Special Assistant, was placed in the revenue charge of Ernad and Calicut taluks and in the magisterial charge of Ernad and portion of Walluvanad (vide G. O., dated 15th February 1886, No. 126). The Divisional Magistrate's headquarter are at Malapuram in Ernad taluk.
Public Establishments.—The various offices located in the taluk are the following :
(1) The Special Assistant Collector and Magistrate ar Malapuram.
(2) The Tahsildar and his establishment at Manjeri.
(3) The Deputy Tahsildar and his establishment at Tirurangadi.
(4) The District Munsif of Ernad at Manjeri and of Cheranad at Parappanangadi.
(5) Assistant Superintendent of Police at Malapuram.
(6) Inspector, Special Police force at Malapuram.
(7) Inspectors of Police at Manjeri, Malapuram and Tirurangadi and Police stations at –
8) District Forest Officer and his establishment at Nilambur.
(9) Sub-Registrars of Manjeri, Malapuram, Wandur, Kondotti and Tirurangadi.
(10) Government Telegraph office at Malapuram and the Railway Telegraph offices at Beypore and Parappanangadi.
(11) Post offices at Manjeri, Malapuram, Nilambur, Kondotti, Parappanangadi and Beypore
(I2) Local Fund middle school at Manjerj.
(13) Local Fund hospitals at Manjeri and Nilambur.
(14) Local Fund Supervisor and Overseers.
(15) Vaccine staff.
(I6) Military detachment at Malapuram.
(17) Marine office at Beypore (Chaliyam) under the charge of the Port Officer, Calicut.
Towns and other places of importance.—There are no municipal towns constituted under the Act in the taluk. The places of importance are described below: —
Manjeri—in the amsam of the same name, is the headquarters of the taluk and is the seat of the Tahsildar, the District Munsif and the Sub-Registrar of Assurances. There are a Local Fund hospital, a public bungalow, a middle school and a chattram at this station. A weekly market is held which is generally-well-attended.
About a quarter of a mile to the south-east of the taluk is a pagoda called Srimuttra Kunnu alias Kunnath Ampalam, dedicated to Durga and situated on a low hill, and immediately below it is the residence of the Manjeri Karnamalpad. In the east wall of the temple is an inscription, dated K.A 827 (A. D. 1651), stating that Mana Vikrama built a matam. There is another near to the well to the north, dated K.A. 833 (A.D. 1657), by the same man.
It was this temple that was seized by the gang of Mappilla fanatics under Attan Kurikal in 1849, and Ensign Wyse, who lies buried on the taluk cutchery hill, was killed in an attempt to take the temple from the fanatics. There are several large dolmens, menhirs and rock-cut caves in this amsam.
Nilambur—which is about 16 miles from Manjeri, is an important station for timber traffic. It is the seat of the District Forest Officer who has charge of the extensive Government teak plantations, and contains a hospital, a Police station, a public bungalow and a Post office. The District Forest Officer is also a Special Magistrate for the trial of offences under the conservancy clauses of the Police Act.
The Nilambur and Amarampalam Tirumalpads who own extensive forests reside in the Nilambur amsam. There are two temples, one dedicated to Vettakkorumakan and the other to Siva. There is an inscription on a block of gneiss rock in the Cherupula river about 1½ miles below the junction with the Karimpula, known as "Eltu Kallu" or Eluttu Kalla, and used to determine the boundary between two janmis. The stone is in the middle of a forest far from any habitation, and the inscription is only visible in extremely dry weather, being below the ordinary low water level. There are numerous dolmens and menhirs and rock-cut caves in the amsam. Gold washing was carried on formerly at Nilambur and the gold so obtained was called channam.
Etakkara—on the river side 8 miles to the east of Nilambur on the road to Nilgiris, is an extensive plain of black rich soil, supposed to be once thickly populated judging from the remains, which are still visible, of ruined temples, houses, tanks, wells, etc. It is now covered with dense jungle, which is well stocked with game. The place is feverish at certain times of the year. There is a public bungalow for the accommodation of travellers going by the Karkur pass.
Wandur—in the amsam of the same name, is 12 miles from Manjeri, and is the seat of a Sub-Registrar of Assurances, who is also a Special Magistrate. There is a Police station, also a good public bungalow which was once largely used by passengers travelling by the Sispara or Chichchippara route to the Nilgiris. The road has fallen into disuse and is not now properly maintained. There is a mosque at this place ; also a Siva temple.
Pandikad—in the amsam of the same name, is 8 miles from Manjeri, and has a Police station, a small public bungalow and a weekly market. Iron ore is obtained to some extent in these parts.
Mambat—in the amsam of the same name, contains a Mappilla bazaar and is a place of timber trade.
Edavanna—in Tiruvali amsam, is a rising Mappilla town on the Nilambur river about 8 miles from Manjeri and has considerable timber trade. There is a mosque at this station, also a temple at Tiruvali about 2 miles from the Edavanna bazaar.
Ariakode—in Iruvetti amsam and about 11 miles from Manjeri, is a small Mappilla town pleasantly situated on the south bank of the Beypore river, and has considerable timber trade. There is a Police station and a good bungalow built on a hill about half a mile from the village for the accommodation of travellers going to Nilgiris via the Karkur pass. The scenery about the place is charming and plenty of easy shooting is available in the neighbourhood. There is a mosque at this station.
Trikkallur or Trikkalliyur—In Urangattiri amsam, is celebrated for a Siva temple standing on elevated ground. It was in this temple that Kutti Assan and eleven other Mappillas made a detenmned stand against the Police and the Military from the 27th to 29th December 1884. The temple was captured and the fanatics slain after breaking open the loopholed barricaded doors with dynamite.
The temple owns large property managed by Kirrangat Ashtamurti Nambudiripad of Vallappula amsam, in Walluvanad taluk. Opposite the temple stands the Churoth mosque, in which the fanatics prayed before taking post in the pagoda. The Mappilla inhabitants of the amsams of Urangattiri, Mappram, Chikod, Iruvetti and Tiruvali were fined for this outrage under the provisions of the Mappilla Outrages Act XX of 1859.
Chembrasseri amsam.—Iron ore is found in this amsam, which is one of the biggest in the taluk.
Kottakal—in the amsam of the same name is 14 miles from Manjeri, and is the seat of the Kilakke Kovilakam Rajas, one of the three branches of the Zamorin's family. There are here the old fort, called Venkatakotta and a small bungalow built by the Raja for the accommodation of visitors. A weekly fair is held, at which areca-nut, arrow-root flour and ginger form the principal articles of trade. The Military camping ground at Klari is only 2 miles from this place.
Malapuram—-(literally mountainous place) in Kilumiri amsam, is a healthy military station about 7 miles from Manjeri and 31 miles from Calicut. It is the seat of the Special Assistant Collector, of the Assistant Superintendent of Police and the Special Police force and of the Sub-Registrar of Assurances. It contains, likewise, Post and Telegraph offices, a public bungalow, a D.P.W. halting shed, barracks for European troops, a Chapel, two Christian cemeteries, a small bazaar, and a weekly market well-attended.
Tippu had a fort here, which is now in ruins. Near the barracks there are good recreation and camping grounds for the troops. Malapuram is the centre of the country which has been fruitful in Maippilla fanatical outbreaks, and in consequence of two risings in 1841 and 1843, native troops were sent here; but as they proved useless during the outbreaks of 1849 and 1851, a detachment of European troops has been stationed here since 1852.
A description of the boundaries of the Military Cantonment for the European barracks at Malapuram will be found printed at page 172 of the Fort Saint George Gazette, dated 22nd February 1853.
The detachment was augmented and officers' quarters built since the Kolattur outrage of 1873. On more than one occasion, special Police corps1 were raised in Malapuram to deal with local outrages, but in the lull which followed the passing of the Mappilla Outrages Act, the work was transferred to the regular constabulary2. A special Police force has again been posted here since 1885.
NOTEs: 1. Vide extracts from Minutes of Consultation, dated 16th May 1854, No. 352.
2. G.O., dated 4th May 1860, published in the Fort Saint George Gazette of the same date. END OF NOTEs
At a short distance from the Malapuram barracks is the Malapuram mosque, which is a tiled building and is of some importance. An annual festival, called Nerchcha is held here usually in the month of Kumbham, supposed to be in commemoration of the death of 40 Mappillas who fell in an encounter with the neighbouring Hindu landlord, Para Nambi’s followers.
There are three Hindu temples in the amsam, known as (1) the Tripuranthakan temple near the barracks, (2) the Mannur Siva temple and (3) the Channath Siva temple. The sacred places of Muhammadans, in addition to the Malapuram mosque, are (1) the Hajiyar Palli and (2) Sayyid’s Jarum (സെയ്തന്മാരുടെ ജാരം).
Kondotti—in Kolattur amsam (17 miles from Calicut), is an important Mappilla town on the road to Calicut and contains the office of the Sub-Registrar who is also a Special Magistrate. There are besides a Police station, a Post office, and a public bungalow.
It is the residence of the Kondotti Tangal who is the Muhammadan high priest of the section of Mappillas known locally as Kondotti Kayikkars. There is a shrine here called Kondotti-thakkiya, which is supposed to have been built in 948 M. E. (A.D. 1773) by the then Tangal, named Muhammad Shaha and in which lie interred his remains. A Nerchcha is performed here annually in the month of Minam.
The Tangals have been loyal to the British Government and their loyalty has been rewarded by the grant of a personal inam to the extent of Rs. 2,734 per year (vide G.O., dated 12th October 1865, No. 2474), and by permission to keep seven pieces of cannon (vide licence granted by the Government of India, under date the 15th September 1885, No 43, forwarded with Madras Government G.O., dated 29th September 1885, No. 2617, Mis.).
There are two mosques at this station which are largely attended.
Urakam-Melmuri contains the Uroth hill which was used as a heliographic station in February 1885 during the disarming operations then in progress. On the top of the hill stands the Tiruvarchchanam Kunnu temple dedicated to god Sankara Narayanan. The Ponmundam fanatics in May 1885 tried to occupy this hill after the murder of Cheruman Kutti Kariyan and his family on the 1st May 1885, but had to leave it for want of water.
The celebrated Mattattur mosque is situated in this amsam.
Tirurangadi (literally Tiru == sacred, ur = village, angadi = bazaar or the place of bazaar in the sacred country of Cheranad) in Trikkulam amsam, is the seat of the Deputy Tahsildar, of the Sub-Registrar of Assurances and of the Police Inspector of that division, and contains a Post office, a bazaar and a well-attended weekly market. The town, which consists of long and crooked streets, lies on the south bank of the river and has nothing remarkable about it, save that there are a jamath mosque which is attended by a large congregation and a Hindu temple dedicated to Siva. There are the remains of a fort dismantled several years ago. In the vicinity of this fort, a decided victory was gained by General Hartley over Tippu’s troops in 1790 (Vol. I, p. 470).
And it was in the same neighbourhood that Colonel Humberstone defeated and slew Mukhdam Ali, one of Hyder Ali’s Generals on 8th April 1782 (Vol I, p. 433). It is curious that the only two pitched battles fought in Malabar between the Mysoreans and the British took place on the same battlefield.
Mampram lies directly opposite to Tirurangadi, on the north bank of the river, in Kotuyayur amsam, and contains the mukham or tomb of a great Tangal buried there. It is on this account a place of considerable pilgrimage. The history of the Tangal who lies interred there is as follows : —
In the early part of the 18th century a Tangal named Sayyid Hussain Ibn Alabi Jiffiri Tangal, who is supposed to have come from Arabia settled at the place called Mampram or Mampuram which was then an extensive waste. It was reclaimed and planted with coconut trees for the growth of which the soil appears to be admirably adapted. He lived in a house called Taramal, and died in the month of Shaban in the Hejira 1169, leaving a daughter named Fattima.
In the fifth year after his death, there arrived at Mampram his nephew (sister’s son) and son-in-law (Fattima’s husband) named Sayyid Alabi Ibn Muhammad, whom in his lifetime the Mappillas served with the utmost devotion and whom after his death they have deified. His first marriage with Fattima was not fruitful, and he married, as his second wife, a woman from the Putiamaliakal house in Calicut.
His next marriage was with a woman of Quilandi, by whom he had, among others, Sayyid Fazl usually known as Pukkoya who was banished with his relatives beyond India on the 19th March 1852.
Sayyid Alabi’s fourth wife was a woman of Ponmundam m Ponnani taluk, who bore him a daughter.
The mukham or shrine intended and used primarily as a receptacle for the dead bodies of the principal Tangals is a rectangular building constructed on very solid foundations, and divided into large hall-like rooms. The building has upper storeys, in one portion there are three and in the other two storeys.
The second floor of one of the rooms stands on a higher elevation than that of the other, and over it an upper floor stands, the circular wall of which is capped by the dome. On the foundation floor of the domed hall are laid 9 coffins, including in them those of Sayyid Alabi who died in 1019 M E (Hejira 1260), and his uncle and those of their nearest deceased relatives. The other hall is the place where verses from the Koran are read for the salvation of the souls of the deceased persons.
The shrine was built over the grave of his uncle by Sayyid Alabi in the third year after his arrival at Mampram or in the 8th year after the uncle’s death. The space in the interior which was originally of lesser dimensions than the foundation, was found not sufficient to allow of walking on it after the nine bodies had been buried there.
A certain Karachi merchant out of gratitude to Sayyid Alabi for his having been miraculously saved by the latter in a shipwreck at sea, had the room extended at his own expense so as to cover the entire space on the foundation. The dome having gone out of repair in recent years, it is now being put up anew and furnished by Putiyamaligayil Sayyid Abdulla Koya of Calicut, out of contributions for the purpose made by his co-religionists.
This shrine has been frequently visited by Mappilla fanatics for the purpose of invoking the Varkkaths (blessings or aid) of the great Tangal buried there, previously to the execution of their designs. And it is also largely resorted to by other Muhammadans and by Hindus to invoke the great Tangal's aid in any enterprises in which they are interested.
Parappanangadi (literally the bazaar place in the Parappanad raj) is a small Mappilla village about 4 miles from Tirurangadi and is the seat of the Cheranad Munsif’s Court. It contains likewise a post office, a Police station and the Railway station of the same name. The palace of the Kshatriya family of Parappanad Rajas is situated at a short distance from the Railway station. It is from this family that the consorts of the Ranis of the Travancore family are usually selected.
Pepper, ginger, salted fish and areca-nut form the chief articles of trade and are exported in large quantities. The Munsif’s Court-house and the Railway station though usually known by the name of "Parappanangadi" are really located within the limits of the Netuva amsam.
Ferokh or (as Malayalis write it) Paramukka (written also Ferokabad in military department Route book), in Nallur amsam, contains a Police station and an important weekly market to which people from Calicut resort for the purchase of poultry, provisions, etc. Half a mile south west of it on an elevated spot are the rains of Ferokabad commanding two beautiful reaches of the Beypore river which flows immediately to the north of the fortress.
It was planned by Tippu whose intention it was to make it the capital of Malabar, but his troops were driven out of it in 1790 before the design was fully carried out. He compelled a large portion of the inhabitants of Calicut to settle here, but on the departure of his troops they returned to their former abode.
The ferry at Ferokh is called the Mammalli ferry. The railway now in course of extension to Calicut passes through this place. An iron bridge on cylinders is being carried across the Mammalli (Beypore) river, and the bridge is to carry ordinary traffic as well as the railway. A railway station is also proposed at this locality. Two miles above the Mammalli ferry on the Ernad or south bank of the river lies Chattamparamba, a laterite hill containing numerous tombs of a long forgotten generation, some of them excavated from the laterite rock and others in the shape of huge earthen pots buried beneath the surface.
From some of these, the interesting beads depicted in the illustrations at pages 180-81 of Volume I have been taken. Some of the beads are of agate with designs on them which take one back to the times of the Buddhists. The pottery, which is found in abundance in these tombs, is of a very varied character and quite different to anything manufactured in recent times.
Chaliyam in Palanchannur amsam (erroneously called Beypore, which is a contiguous amsam on the north bank of the river in the Calicut taluk) is an island formed by the Kadalhundi and Beypore rivers, and by the sea on the west. It is about ten miles in circumference. It is the present western terminus of the Madras Railway and contains a hotel, two public chattrams, a Police station, Post office, Marine flagstaff, a Protestant chapel and cemetery, a mosque and a petty bazaar.
The travellers' bungalow and the Beypore Sea Customs office lie on the northern side of the Beypore ferry in the Calicut taluk. The Railway station has a flower garden and a small park kept in neat order by the railway company.
There is a rocky islet lying to the southward of the entrance to the Beypore river and connected with the mainland by a groyne. This islet contains two mounds, a northern and a southern one, and the Port Officer, Calicut, made excavations round the base of the former and discovered the remains of what appeared to be the remains of a fortress. Captain Gillham states as follows : —
"There is now no question or doubt but that the masonry was the commencement of foundations for a very formidable fortress for the protection of the entrance to Beypore river. The walls being the strongest on the west and north-west and north angles where the foundations were 13 feet across and from 2 to 3 feet deep, commencing on coarse sand and shelly bottom. The portion comprised between the south-west angle of the mound round by east to the north angle is of cut laterite stone built in chunam, and from the north angle to the south-east angle round by east, the foundations are cuttings and levellings on the upper surface of the laterite rock, with small portions of concrete and. masonry levellings in places. From the fact of the foundation having been commenced on a sandy soil, together with the fact that when excavations were being made into the base of the north mound, a considerable quantity of red soil was found, has led me to the opinion that the mounds on the islet are not natural, but artificially made from soil carried to the islet from the mainland.”
The Port officer also dug three wells with the object of ascertaining whether fresh water was obtainable on the isle. Of these three, two yield perfectly pure water, but the third proved brackish. It is likely that the foundations of the fortress discovered formed part of Tippu Sultan’s project for protecting his projected city at Ferokh.
Kadalhundi and Nirumkayitha kotta in Vallikunnu amsam are small hamlets of some note. The former contains a Mappilla bazaar and the latter the important temple known as Nirumkayitha kotta dedicated to god Ayyappan. The temple has a copper sheet roof and stands on the slope of an elevated hill. On the top of the hill called Melkotta, there is a deity which persons proceeding to the Nirumkayitha kotta temple go up to worship. The place is infested by monkeys, supposed to be a portion of the army with which Rama conquered Ceylon, left here by him on his return from his expedition.
The following temples and mosques which are not described above deserve notice :—
(1) Manjeri Amsam —(1) Arizhayi Siva temple, (2) Pantalur temple, (3) Manjeri mosque.
(2) Trikkalangot Amsam—contains the Trikkalangot temple dedicated to Vettakorumakan and certain inscriptions in Vatteluthu and five dolmens. The celebrated Karikkatt temple, dedicated to Subramania, also exists here.
(3) Ponmala Amsam—contains the important Ponmala temple and the Ponmala mosque.
(4) Intiannur Amsam—contains a temple, dedicated to Ganapathi and Siva.
(5) Kottakkel Amsam—contains (1), Kotlakkel Siva temple, (2) Pandamangalam Vishnu temple, (3) Vettakkorumakan temple.
(6) Netiyiruppu Arnsam—contains Pulikkad Bhagavathi temple.
(7) Alinjilam Amsam—contains (1) Pariapuram temple, dedicated to Subramania, (2) Palakkel Bhagavathi temple, (3) Karumaken kavu temple, (4) Ariyil Siva temple. (8) Nallur Amsam—contains the Nallur Siva temple which is of some importance.
(9) Chelembra Amsam—contains (1) Vennayur Vishnu temple, (2) Itavalikkel Ganapathi temple, (3) Tiruvangat Siva temple.
(10) Karat Amsam—contains Virali kavu temple.
(11) Puthur Amsam—contains Cherukunnath Bhagavathi temple, the deity of which is supposed to have come from the temple of that name in North Malabar.
(12) Valluvambram Amsam—contains Pullanur mosque.
(13) Netuva Amsam—contains Pisharikkel kavu temple alias Puthiarayara Nallur temple, dedicated to goddess Mukambika.
Christian Churches, and Cemeteries and scattered Tombs.—There are Roman Catholic and Protestant chapels at Malapuram and at Chaliyam (Beypore). There are also cemeteries at each of these stations. The scattered tombs in the taluk are the following.-
(1) Tomb near the District Forest office at Nilambur bearing fhe following inscription—“To the memory of Samuel Robert Clogstoun, Lieutenant in the 23rd Regiment, M.N.I. He was born on the 26th January 1824 and drowned in the Chellambore river (Nilambur) near this spot on the 13th August 1843. Generous, high spirited and of great promise ; he died deeply regretted. His brother officers, in testimony of esteem for his worth and sorrow for his early death, have erected this tomb”.
(2) Tomb of Ensign Wyse, who died at the hands ot Mappiila fanatics in 1849 in Manjeri amsam close to the District Munsif’s Court, bears no inscription.
(3) Tomb of Mary Elliot in the Valakkat coffee estate, in the jungly wilds of the Silent Valley in Chembrasseri amsam.
Soil and Productions.—The soil of the western portion of Ernad and on the heights, is red laterite intermixed with gravel ; in the valleys of cultivation, it is a rich brown free from gravel, so also in the cultivated tract in the interior. The dense coconut belt usually not more than 4 miles wide extending along the coast, runs up for 12 or 15 miles into very nearly the heart of the taluk about Malapuram, and the soil in these parts seems to be singularly well adapted to this tree and to other vegetable productions, among others, the pineapple which nowhere flourishes better than in these richly cultivated low-lying valleys in Ernad.
In the forests and mountains, the soil is a rich black mould owing to the constant falling of decayed leaves and rotten wood. Granitic gneiss is conspicuous on the face of the ghats and the mountains, to the east where it is seen to form a perfect barrier. The productions generally are rice of various sorts, and several species of dry grain and pulses ; pepper is produced but not in such abundance as in the tracts along the coast. The areca palm is cultivated extensively about the central parts and grows luxuriantly on the banks of all the rivers ; it is, however, scarce to the east of Nilambur.
Timber of many descriptions, also bamboos, honey and bees' wax are obtained from the forests.
Inams.—A list of inams of various descriptions granted in the taluk is appended.
Mines, Minerals and Manufactures.—Iron ore is found in different parts of the taluk, chiefly in Chembrasseri and Pandikad amsams, but very little of it is actually worked. Gold ore is found in the beds of the rivers and streams running down from the ghats into the Nilambur valley. One of the principal branches of the Beypore river is called the Ponpula or gold river from an idea that a large portion of that mineral is washed down the stream during the rains.
The manufactures in the taluk are of little moment and consist of some cloth of an inferior quality. The cloths formerly famous as shaleeats appear to have derived their name from Chaliyam, the present terminus of the Madras Railway, but the art of weaving them appears to have been lost. Oils from coconut and castor, coir on the sea coast, jaggery and arrack from toddy are manufactured almost everywhere.
Bungalows and Chattrams.—There are bungalows at (1) Kondotti, (2) Ariakod, (3) Etavanna, (4) Nilambur, (5) Etakkara, (6) Wandur, (7) Malapuram, (8) Pandikad (9) Manjeri ; and chattrams at (1) Manjeri and (2) Karimpula.
The bungalows at Pandikad and Manjeri are under the supervision of local fund overseers.
Railway Stations.—In the Ernad taluk there are railway stations at Chaliyam (erroneously called Beypore) and Parappanangadi and one proposed to be built in connection with the extension to Calicut at Ferokh.
Fairs.-There are fairs at –
Trigonometrical Stations.— The survey stations to be preserved and annually reported on are named below (Board’s Proceedings, dated 28th July 1886, No 1706):-
1. Appendices 1
2. Appendices 2
3. Port rules
6. Mr. Græme’s Glossary 1
7. Mr. Græme’s Glossary 2
8. Mr. Græme’s Glossary 3
12. Chirakkal Taluk
22. Kottayam Taluk
25. Wynad Taluk
28. Calicut Taluk
29. Ernad Taluk
32. Walluvanad Taluk
33. Palghat Taluk
34. Palghat Forest
35. Ponnani Taluk
36. Cochin Taluk