Malabar Manual Vol 1 CHAPTER IV. THE LAND
Sub-Section II.—Historical Facts down to 1805-6
RELATING TO THE LOW-COUNTRY.
Sketch Map of Nads.11. The accompanying rough sketch map will enable any one to pick out, at a glance, the particular portion of the district dealt with.
(3) The English Settlement at Tellicherry and Darmapattam Island
Limits of Kolattanad.12. The domain in which the Kolattiri or Chirakkal family was regarded as the suzerain comprised the following modern amsams of the modern taluk of Chirakkal, viz.
A.D. 1731-32.13. In 1731-32 the Kolattiri dominions were invaded by the Bodnur Raja’s forces, and the Kolattiri Raja had in consequence to impose a tax of 20 per cent, of the pattam (rent) on all rice-lands.
Invasion of the Bodnur Raja.14. From this time forward the Kolattiri Raja was in straits for money to settle the Bodnur Raja’s demands, and the country seems to have been twice at least invaded afterwards.
1765-66 : 15. 1765-66 Hyder Ali descended into Kolattunad. The country was in a distracted state : sometimes in Hyder’s possession, sometimes in the Rajas, and sometimes in the hands of the Cannanore Bibi, and 30 per cent, of the pattam (rent) was imposed.
1776-77: 16. This continued till 1776-77, when Ramalinga Pillay, an officer of Hyder’s, sent one Koonjamaran Pillay, his gumasta or deputy, who fixed an assessment on each field at the rate of 50 per cent, of the pattam.
1777-80: 17 In 1777-80 Hyder exacted an annual tribute or Nuzzar of Rs. 4,00,000, and people say that 100 per cent, of the pattam (rent) was taken to make good the demand.
1781-83: 18. In 1781-83 the Raja exacted 50 per cent, of the pattam (rent), taking the paddy in kind.
1783:19. In 1783 one Harpenhully Venkappa made some alteration, but what it was, is not clear.
1785-88: 20. In 1785-88 Tippu, while the country was in possession of the Raja, sent a Commission to make a survey and to detect frauds, and the assessment was fixed at 50 per cent, of the pattam (rent), commuted into money at Rs. 40 per 1,000 seers of paddy. This commutation rate was increased to Rs. 41½ per 1,000 seers because of the substitution in the revenue collections of the Sultani fanam (3½ to the rupee) for the fanam current in the country.
1788-89: 21. In 1788-89 the people deserted the country owing to Tippu’s attempts at wholesale Islamism.
1790-92: 22. In 1790-92 the revenue was managed by the Raja, and the assessment was 50 per cent, of the pattam (rent), taken in kind for rice-lands.
1792-93: 23. In 1792-93 a survey was made by the Company’s and Raja’s servants, and the Raja alleged that he collected only 50 per cent, of the pattom (rent).
1798-99. The Hon'ble Company assume direct management:
24. A deficiency occurring in the collections, the Company in 1798—99 assumed the direct management.
1799-1800: 25. In 1799-1800 Mr. Hodgson, the Sub-Collector, made a settlement on the principle of taking 50 per cent of the pattam, commuted into money at Rs. 41½ per 1,000 seers of paddy.
1799-1801: 26. It has been customery for the inhabitants to give 10 seers per Potpad (Poti = 30 seers; Potipad = land requiring 30 seers to sow it), under the denomination of Potipattu (literally, 10 per poti), for the use of the Devasvam or Hindu temples. In 1799-1800 or 1800-1 half of this Potipattu, or (say 81/3 per cent, of the pattam) was assumed on behalf of Government at the ordinary commutation of Rs. 41½ per 1,000 seers.
1799-1801: 27. It had also been customary for the proprietors to give for every 100 seers of pattam (rent) 16 seers, under the names of Veli nellu (paddy for hedges) and Kythee nellu (grain for ropes), for raising hedges and providing ropes for keeping out and fastening up cattle which strayed into the rice-fields. In 1799-1800 or in 1800-1 half of this also was assumed by Government, at the ordinary commutation rate (Rs. 41 l/2 for 1,000 seers).
1801-2: 28. In 1801-2 Major Macleod, the first Principal Collector of the district, made a survey. Owing to the rebellion which arose, the survey was rescinded and Mr. Rickards, the second Principal Collector, reverted to the assessment of 1 800-I
1805-6: 29. In 1805-6 Mr. Warden, the third Principal Collector, for the purpose of carrying out the scheme of assessment proposed by Mr. Rickards and approved by Government (see Appendix XV), obtained a return from all proprietors of the seed, produce, etc., of all their fields. This return is usually known as the Janmi Pymaish of 981 M.E. On receipt of the returns for this Nad, the assessments, which were found to fall short of the proper proportion (50 per cent.) of the pattam (rent), were raised, but excesses similarly ascertained were not similarly reduced.
A.D. 1731-92: 30. It will be unnecessary to do more than refer to the following dates and paragraphs of this note for a description of the circumstances under which the revenue share of the pattam on gardens was, like that on rice-lands, assessed at the following rates:
1731-32, paragraph 13 20 per cent.
1731-65, do. 14
1765-66, do. 15 30 per cent.
1776-77, do. 16 50 per cent.
1777-80, do. 17 1 00 per cent.
1781-83, do 18 50 percent, (Pepper was taken in kind).
1783, do. 19
1790-92, do. 22 50 per cent. (Taken in money.)
1792-99: 31. Between 1792 and 1798-99 the Raja, who continued at this period to collect the revenue, had increased the percentage of assessment on garden produce to 60 per cent, of the pattam, except on pepper, which remained at 50 per cent. The pattam was ascertained by taking 20 per cent of the gross produce as the tenants share, except as regards pepper, the tenant’s share of which was not properly ascertained. The commutation rates for the produce were-
Cocoanuts Rs. 10-0-0 per 1,000 nuts.
Betel-nuts Re. 0—6—4 do.
Jacks Six-tenths of pattam, whatever the number of trees might be.
Pepper. Rs. 130-0-0 per candy of 640 lb.
32. In 1805-6 (as in the case of wet lands, paragraph 29 above) ascertained deficiencies in the proper proportion (50 per cent.) of the pattam (rent) on garden lands were raised on receipt of the Janmi Pymaish account of 981 M.E., but similarly ascertained excesses were not similarly reduced.
1776-77 Modam: 33. In 1776-77 Pattada crops (rice grown oil uplands, similar to the Modan of South Malabar) were assessed in the Elom, Madayi, Cherutalam and Kunyimangalam Amsam at 30 per cent, of the. gross produce, commuted into money at Rs. 3a per 1,000 local seers, and in the other portions of the Nad at 40 per cent, of gross produce commuted at the same rate.
1776-77. Punom: 34. And in the same year (1776-77) Punam crops (rice and other grains and pulses, and occasionally some cotton grown on jungle lands felled annually for the purpose) were similarly assessed at 30 per cent, of the gross produce in the Elom, Madayi, Cherutalam and Kunyimangalam Amsams, and at 10 per cent, of the gross produce in the rest of the Nad : and the commutation rate was the same throughout, viz., Rs. 35 per 1,000 local seers as in the case of Pattada.
1776-77. Ellu: 35. Likewise, in the same year (1776-77), Ellu crops (gingelly-oil seed) were assessed throughout the Nad at 20 percent of the gross produce, commuted into money at Rs. 40 per 1,000 local seers.
Limits of Randatara: 36. Randatara (or , as it is sometimes called, Poyanadu in reference to the tradition that it was from this Nad that Cheraman Perumal took his final departure on his journey to Mecca) comprised the following modern amsams of the modern taluk of Chirakkal:-
Its connection with the Honourable East India Company’s Settlement at Tellicherry. A.D. 1741-93: It originally formed part of the Kolattunad under the Kolattiris, but it had come in the course of time to be treated as a separate Nad owing to the English factory at Tellicherry having taken the four ruling families of Achanmar and the 500 Nayars of the Nad under their special protection in the year 1741. The intention of this measure was “to give the Honourable Company authority over the Achanmar, as also to interpose with the Prince” (Kolattiri) “if he should oppress them by extravagant taxes, which has heretofore happened”- an allusion to the exactions which followed upon the Bednur irruption into Kolattunad in 1731 and following years.
The transaction took the form of a mortgage for 60,000 fanams of the Nad, which was rich in pepper.
This was the beginning of a long series of transactions, which ended on the 26th April 1793 in an agreement between the Achanmar and the Joint Commissioners in allowing to the former a deduction in the amount of the revenue payable by them for their own lands equivalent to the 20 per cent, of the revenue allowed to the other chieftains of Malabar as Malilkhana.
1765: 37. In 1705, collections were made by the Honourable Company at 15 per cent, probably of the pattam or rent on rice-lands, and this share of produce was taken in kind. In the agreement with the Achanmar cited in paragraph 36, this arrangement is alluded to as having been in force from 1741, but, owing to disturbances in the country, the arrangement had evidently been broken through and it was renewed on 16th May 1765.
1792: 38. In 1792, the assessment “was raised by the Commissioners to 50 percent of the “produce”, commuted into money at Rs. 43 per 1,000 seers. “The produce” here seems to mean the “pattam”(rent).
A permanent assessment of the Achanmar's private estates: 39. In 1793, the agreement alluded to in paragraph 36 was made with the Achanmar, whose wet lands were permanently assessed at 15 per cent, of “the pattam (rent)”, commuted into money at Rs. 45 per 1,000 seers.
In addition to the private estates of the Achanmar, those of the Bibi of Cannanore and of the Raja of Chirakkal were also similarly assessed. The agreement itself is very indefinite in its terms, but the above has been ascertained to be the actual settlement. The lands of other proprietors continued to be held on the footing detailed in paragraph 38.
1765: 40. In 1765 collections were made by the Company at 20 per cent, probably of the pattam or rent on gardens, the produce of which was generally commuted into money probably at current market rates. The terms of the agreement of 16th May 1765 are very indefinite.
1792: 41. In 1792 the Commissioners raised the assessment to 50 per cent, of "the produce" (which seems to have here meant pattam or rent calculated on the customary share at the customary pattam rates for produce), except on pepper. The rates were-
Permanent assessment of Achanmar's private estates. 42. In 1793, under the agreement alluded to in paragraph 36, the gardens on the private estates of the Achanmar were permanently assessed at 20 percent of the pattam (rent), commuted into money at the following rates :
In addition to the private estates of the Achanmar, those of the Bibi of Cannanore and of the Chirakkal Raja were also similarly assessed. The agreement itself is very indefinite in its terms, but the above has been ascertained to be the actual settlement. The lands of other proprietors continued to be held on the footing detailed in paragraph 41.
Year uncertain: 43. Puttada, Punam and Ellu (see paragraphs 33, 34, 35) were assessed alike at 25 per cent, of the gross produce, commuted into money at Rs. 40, Rs. 40 and Rs. 80 per 1,000 seers respectively, but it is not certain when this assessment was fixed.
(3) THE ENGLISH SETTLEMENT AT TELLICHERRY AND DARMAPATTAM ISLAND
Limits of the Honourable East India Company’s settlement. 44. The settlement consisted of the following modern amsams of the Kottayam taluk:-
Dharmadam. | Mailanjanmam.
Tellicherry. | Tiruvangad.
How, and when acquired: The settlement also originally formed a portion of the ancient Kolattunad. The Honourable Company sent agents to Tellicherry about 1683-84. In 1708 a formal grant was obtained from the northern regent of the Kolattiri family to erect a fort at Tellicherry, which thenceforth remained uninterruptedly in British occupation. The island of Dharmapattanam, lying adjacent to Tellicherry on the north, was acquired by agreements from the Kolattiri and Kottayam Rajas and the Bibi of Cannanore, who all had claims on it, in the years 1734-35, and remained from that time forward, with one short interruption (1788-89), in British occupation. The factory became a Residency in 1776, as, owing to the Mysore occupation, it was not continuing to pay. But the chiefship was afterwards restored.
45. Those belonging to the Company were assessed at 100 percent, the pattam (rent), equivalent to about 40 per cent of the gross produce, and commuted into money at Rs. 45 per 1,000 seers.
1772-76: 46. Those belonging to private individuals in Tellicherry were free of assessment till 1772, when they were rated at 10 per cent, of the “produce.” This continued till 1776, when 25 per cent, of the ‘‘produce” - here, however, intended to mean the pattam or rent—was taken and commuted into money at Rs. 43 per 1,000 seers, which rate was subsequently raised to Rs. 45 per 1,000 seers.
47. Those belonging to private individuals in Dharmapattanam Island were assessed at 50 per cent, of the pattam (rent), commuted into money at Rs. 45 per 1,000 seers.
48. Those belonging to temples in Dharmapattanam Island were assessed at 35 per cent of the pattam (rent), commuted into money at Rs. 45 per 1,000, seers.
49. Those belonging to the Honourable Company in Tellicherry were, prior to 1793-94, rated at 50 per cent, of the pattam (rent), and in that year the rate was increased to 662/3 per cent of the pattam (rent).
50. Some of those belonging to private individuals in Tellicherry had, prior to 1772, been rated at 25 per cent, of the "produce,” and in that year all of them were so rated. This continued till 1776, when the following rates were imposed : -
But what constituted a “fruitful tree” or “fruitful vine” is not known. If the customary share of produce was taken and commuted into money at the customary pattam rates of produce, then it would appear as if it had been meant to take 50 per cent, of pattam on cocoanuts, 100 per cent, of pattam on betel-nuts, and 100 per cent, of pattam on jacks.
51. In Dharmapattanam Island all garden lands, whether belonging to the Honourable Company, to private parsons, or to temples were assessed alike at 50 per cent, of the pattam (rent).
Year uncertain: 52. In Dharmapattanam Island, Puttada and Ellu (vide paragraphs 33 and 35) on all lands were assessed at 25 percent of the gross produce, commuted into money at Rs. 40 and Rs. 80 per 1,000 seers respectively. It is not certain when this assessment was fixed.
The Iruvalinad Nambiars:
53. Was also a portion of Kolattunad under the suzerainty of the Kolattiri Raja. When the English factory was established at Tellicherry it was held by six families of Nambiars, viz., (1) Kunnumal, (2) Chandrott, (3) Kilakkodatta, (4) Kampuratta, who were known collectively as the Kulatta Nambiars, and by (5) Narangoli Nambiar and (6) Kariyad Nambiar. The Kurangott Nayar’s possessions also probably formed part of the original territory of Iruvalinad, but this portion will be more conveniently treated separately.
Iruvalinad proper consisted of the following modern amsams of the modern taluk of Kottayam, viz. : —
1. Pamir. | 4. Panniyannur.
2. Puttur. | 5. Perinkulam.
3. Triprangottur. | 6. Kariyad.
Their relations with the English and French settlements:
Owing to the position of their territory, these Iruvalinad Nambiars were early brought into relations with both of the neighbouring settlements of the English at Tellicherry and of the French at Mahe. There were accordingly many engagements entered into between the Honourable Company’s Factors at Tellicherry on the one hand and the Nambiars on the other.
The Nambiars are also frequently referred to in engagements between the English and French settlements, and between the English Company and other Native chieftains. It does not seem, however, that the Nambiars were in any way subject to the Honourable Company till 1782, when, owing to the successes attending the raising of the Siege of Tellicherry, the Nambiars and two other country powers agreed to become tributary to the Company. Whether this agreement was carried out is doubtful, because it was followed soon after by the Mangalore treaty of peace with Tippu Sultan in 1784, and by a return to the mutual positions hold by the respective parties before the war.
1765-82: In Hyder Ali’s time (1765-82) this Nad was managed by the Raja of Chirakkal, who took 50 per cent, of the Pattam (rent), payable either in kind or commutable into money at Rs. 40 per 1,000 seers.
55. In Tippu’s time the rate continued the same, the revenue being collected in kind.
56. To prevent illicit trade with the French at Mahe the Nad was taken under the direct management of the Company at the rupture with Tippu Sultan in 1790-91; 50 per cent, of the pattam (rent.) was collected.
1793: 57. In 1793 the commutation rate was raised from Rs. 411/2 per 1,000 seers to Rs. 45 per 1,000 seers on the Narangoli Nambiar’s private estate ; it remained at the former rate elsewhere.
1793-91. 58. In 1793-91 the Nambiars were entrusted with the management of the Nad, and in 1794-95 they fixed the assessment at 50 per cent, of the pattam (rent).
1795-96: 59. In 1795-96 the assessment on all lands was raised to 60 per cent, of the pattam (rent) at the same commutation rates.
1799-1800: 60. In 1799-1800 the assessment was further raised to 72 percent, of the pattam (rent), except, on the Narangoli Nambiar's private estate, and except in four desams of Panur amsam.
1765-82: 61. Under Hyder Ali (1765-82) the Chirakkal Raja collected an assessment at the following rates:
62. In Tippu's time, these rates were altered as follows:-
But these rates being found burdensome, the whole jama (demand) on the Nad was reduced from Rs. 34,000 to Rs. 30,000, and the people were themselves allowed to regulate the rates.
1792: 63. The Nad being under the direct, management of the Honourable Company in 1792 (vide paragraph 56), the rates were raised so as to take 50 per cent, of the pattam.
1793: 04. In 1793 the rates were again altered as follows:-
These rates were, however, subsequently reduced as too high
1793-94: 65. The Nambiars were in 1793-94 entrusted with the management of the Nad.
1794-95: 66. The Nambiars in 1794-95 fixed the assessment at 50 per cent. of the pattam (rent). The assessment on pepper 1794-95. seems to have remained at this rate of 50 per cent, of the pattam. commuted into money at Rs. 120 per candy of 640 lb., down to the final abolition of the assessment in 1806-7.
1795-96: 67. In 1795-96 the assessment was raised to 60 per cent, of the pattam (rent).
1796-97: 68. In 1796-97 Narangoli Nambiar’s lands were assessed at 100 per cent, of the pattam (rent), probably for misconduct in intriguing with the rebellious Pychy Raja.
1799-1800: 69. In 1799-1800 the assessment was again raised (except on Narangoli Nambiars lands and except in four desams of Panur amsam to 72 percent, of the pattam (rent).
1790-91: 70. In 1790-91 the assessment on Puttada, Punam and Ellu (see paragraphs 33, 34, 35) was fixed at 25 per cent, of the gross produce, commuted into money at Rs. 35, Rs. 35 and Rs. 80 per 1,000 seers respectively.
1792-93: 71. In 1792-93 the assessment on these crops was professedly raised to 40 per cent, of the gross produce, much too high a rate, leading to extensive concealment of produce.
1806-07: 72. In 1806-7 the assessment was extended, on the same principles, to Puttada and Ellu crops raised on land already assessed for garden produce.
(5) KURANGOTT NAYAR'S NAD
Position and limits: 73. For remarks, see paragraph 53 above. This Nad lay directly between the English and French settlements at Tellicherry and Mahe respectively, and consisted of the following amsams of the modern taluk of Kottayam :
His relations with the English and French and Mysoreans: From the position of his Nad, the Nayar was early brought into relations with both the English and French Companies, and he tried his best, to play off one against the other, not without loss to himself. He was the first chieftain who tried conclusions with the arms of the Honourable Company. This was in 1719, and he came out of it worsted, and was obliged to cede to the Company the desam of Mailam in the modern amsam of Mailanjanmam.
After this he remained more under French than under English influence till 1766, when, on Hyder Ali’s descent into Malabar, he was the only chieftain1 besides Cochin permitted to retain his district. He was, however, subsequently compelled to pay tribute to Hyder Ali.
NOTEs: 1. The Randatara Achanmar being under the protection of the Honourable Company were likewise at first undisturbed. END OF NOTEs
In 1779 he assisted the English Company at the taking of Mahe, and in 1782 he was in turn taken prisoner by the English Company at the successful sortie which closed the siege of Tellicherry. Remaining a prisoner at Tellicherry, he paid tribute to the Company for his Nad till 1785, in which year he was again claimed by the French as their ally.
In 1787 Tippu caught and hanged him and annexed his Nad to the lruvalinad Revenue Cutcherry. In 1790 the English Company drove the Mysoreans out of this Nad, and reinstated the Nayar, who again turned to the French alliance, in consequence of which he was arrested and sent a prisoner to Calicut in 1793. In 1797 the Nayar was reinstated in his Nad, which he managed down to 1805-6.
1795-180: 74. There is nothing to show on what principles the Nayar collected the revenue between 1795 and 1805-6. In the latter year he resigned the management and received a Malikhana.
1805-6. 75. In 1805-6 the assessment was fixed at 60 per cent, of' the pattam (rent) as entered in the Janmi Pymaish account of 981 (1805-6), and commuted into money at Rs. 45 per 1,000 seers. Whether the pattam (rent), of which 60 per cent, was taken, was the actual pattam (rent) being paid to the Janmis, or whether it was the pattam (rent) calculated on Mr. Rickards’ plan (see paragraphs 226, 226a, 226b below) is not known. It was probably the latter, because the garden assessments were fixed on Mr. Rickards’ plan.
1805-6: 76. In 1805-6 the assessment was fixed at 50 per cent, of the pattam (formed of two-thirds of the gross produce on Rickards’ plan, vide paragraphs 226, 226a, 226b below) and the commutation rates were fixed as follows :-
Cocanuts 1000 per 1,000 nuts.Betel-nuts0664/5 doJacks0323/5 per treePepper100
It is not known, however, what this "fruit vine" was expected to yield in produce.
It is not known, however, what this "fruit vine" was expected to yield in produce.
77. No details are available.
(6) KOTTAYAM OR COTIOTE
The Kottayam Rajas. The Pyche Raja's rebellion, and death, 30th November 1805, Limits:
78. Was also formerly a portion of Kolattunud. The Cotiote or Kottayattu Rajas, who are also styled Puranattu (i.e.foreign Kshatriya) Rajas, received their territory from the Kolattiri. This event took place some centuries ago, and when the English settlement was formed at Tellicherry, “the Cotiote” (as the Raja was generally called) was one of the first with whom the Honourable Company came into formal relations. The Raja steadily supported the Honourable Company in the conflicts with Hyder and Tippu, first in 1780-82 and again in 1791-92.
On the cession of Malabar to the British in 1792 some unfortunate misunderstandings arose, and the Palassi or Pychy Raja, the de facto head of the house, rose in rebellion, and maintained a sort of independence so long as Wynad (which was claimed both by Tippu Sultan and by the Honourable Company) was at hand for him to flee to.
On the fall of Seringapalam in 1799 Wynad was formally ceded to the Honourable Company, and a struggle immediately commenced with Palassi or Pychy Raja. The conflict lasted till near the end of 1805, and was terminated on 30th November 1805 by the death, in a skirmish, of the Palassi Raja. The Kottayam country, consisting Wynad, which will be considered separately, consisted of the following modern amsams in the modern taluk of Kottayam, viz.
Kudali. Mulakkunnu. Sivapuram. Pinarayi.
Pattannur. Gannavam. Palassi. Nittur.
Chavasseri. Manatana. Kandamkkunnu. Katirur.
Veliyambra. Kannavam. Paduvilayi. Kottayam.
In a more or less unsettled state till 1805-6: 79. It will be gathered from the above that this Nad was in a more or less unsettled state both under Mysore and under British rule until 1805-6, but a settlement was concluded between the Mysoreans and the Raja some time after Hyder Ali’s second invasion, and its principles were to take 50 per cent of the pattam (rent), commuted into money at Rs. 41-8-0 per 1,000 seers. There was supposed to be an annual survey, and if this was properly conducted, the assessment would not, according to the recognised customs of the country as regards deductions for cultivation expenses, etc., have amounted to more than 25 per cent, of the gross produce.
1805-6: 80. The above principles were professedly followed down to 1805-6, when, on the receipt of the Jamni Pymaish accounts (vide paragraph 29 above), the assessment was raised in the cases in which it fell short of the proper proportion of pattam (rent) as returned in the said accounts, but similarly ascertained excesses were not similarly reduced.
81. The Mysorean settlement with the Raja was on the principles of taking 50 per cent,of the pattam (rent) and of commuting it into money at the following rates :
Cocanuts Rs. 10-0-0 per nuts.
Betel-nuts 0-6—44/5 do.
Jacks The pattam was ascertained as precisely as possible.
Pepper Rs. 130-0-0 per candy of 640 lb.
1805-6: 82. These rates remained professedly unaltered down to 1805-6, when, as in the case of wet lands, on receipt of the Janmi Pymaish accounts (paragraph 29 above) ascertained deficiencies were raised and ascertained excesses were not reduced. The commutation rates remained as before, except that betel-nuts were rated at 8 annas per mille and jacks at 6 annas 44/5 pies per tree.
Year uncertain: 83. Pullada and Punam (vide, paragraphs 33, 34, above) were assessed at 40 percent, of the gross produce, commuted into money at Rs. 35 per 1,000 seers, and Ellu (vide paragraph 35 above) was assessed at 25 per cent, of the gross produce, commuted into money at Rs. 80 per 1,000 seers. It has not been ascertained when this settlement was made. It was very severe, and it must have led to extensive concealment of produce.
The Kadattanad Rajas: 84. This was also formerly a portion of Kolattunad : it in fact formed the chief portion of the territory under the jurisdiction of the Tekkalankur (Southern Regent), or second Rajasthanam of the Kolattiri. When the English Company settled at Tellicherry, Kulattanad was subject to the ancestors of the present Raja of Kadattanad who was at that time usually known as the "Boyanore” or (Baynor1 of Badagara,” from the chief port of the Nad, and who, tradition says, was connected in the male line with the Kolattiris. It was composed of the following modern amsams of the modern taluk of Kurumbranad, viz.
NOTEs: 1. Corrupt transliterations of “Valunnavar”= ruler. END OF NOTEs
Aliyur. Valayam. Kumangod.
Muttungal. Velliyod. Ponmeri.
Eramala Kunnummal. Arakkilad.
Karttikapalli Kavilumpara. Vadakara.
Purameri. Kuttiyadi. Memunda.
Edacheri. Velam. Palayad.
Iringannur. Cherapuram. Putuppanam.
Tuneri. Kottappalli. Maniyur.
Vellur. Ayancheri. Tiruvallur
Kavilumpara and Kuttiyadi: The amsarns of Kavilampara and Kuttiyadi belonged, when the Honourable Company acquired Malabar in 1792, to the Kottayam or Cotiote Raja, but it will be more convenient in the present narrative to include them in Kadattanad.
1766-67: 85. In 1766-67 the Kadattanad Raja agreed to become tributary to Hyder Ali for his Nad in the sum of Rs. 50,000.
1768-69: 86. No levy was made from the people on the above account till 1768-69, when, in order to defray arrears, a survey of gardens was made, but no assessment was imposed on rice.
1768-73: 87. Hyder Ali's forces having retired, no collections were made between 1768 and 1773.
1778-79: 88. It was only in 1778-79 that rice-lands were first assessed by the second Raja, acting under the orders of Bulvunt Row, Hyder Ali’s general. The assessment was at the rate of 50 per cent, of the pattam (rent), commuted into money at Rs. 40 per 1,000 seers.
1780-81: 89. This continued in force till 1781, the Raja having meanwhile been relieved from management by Sirdar Khan, who took charge in 1780-81.
1781: 90. In 1781 no revenue was paid.
1782-87: 91. 1782-83 till 1786-87, under Arshad Beg Khan's governorship, the collections continued at the former rate of 50 per cent, of the pattam (rent).
1787: 92. In 1787 the Raja was directed1 by Parvana from Tippu Sultan to take 50 per cent, of the gross produce as the Sirkar’s share, but the arrangement was never carried into effect.
NOTEs: 1 Treaties, etc., i. CXLVIII. END OF NOTEs
1788: 93. In 1788 Ramalinga Pillay, an agent, who was originally appointed by Hyder Ali, and who had made sundry settlements in South Malabar, completed a survey of the Nad and assessed the rice-lands as follows:-
Each local para (10 local seers), of seed was assessed at 3 Cunteray fanams, but whether this assessment per para of seed was imposed on the actual number of paras required to sow all the wet lands in the Nad, or whether it was only imposed (as in South Malabar) on a certain proportion of the actual number of paras so required, has not been ascertained.
1789-91: 94. The above assessment (whatever it was) was collected by Tippu Sultan's officers, who, in the absence of by the Raja, managed the district in the years 1789-90 and 1790-91.
1791-98: 95. The Raja having returned to his Nad on the expulsion of the Mysoreans, it is not clear on what principles the assessment was levied by him between 1791 and 1798.
1798-99: 96. In 1798-99 a survey was made and 60 per cent, of the pattam (rent) was assessed on rice-lands, and commuted 1798-99 into money at Rs. 40 per 1,000 seers.
1768-69: 97. See paragraphs 85 and 86 above, in order to defray the arrears of tribute which had accrued, 100 percent, of the pattam on gardens was levied in1768-69.
1773-74: 98. In 1773-74 arrears had again accrued to the extent of Rs. 3,00,000, and to defray this an estimate of the number of gardens was made, excluding unproductive and waste. It came to 15,000, and on this number a rate was levied at Rs. 10 per garden. This was made at the instance of Burki Srinivas Row, Hyder’s Civil and Military Governor, who had descended into Malabar with an army.
1774-75: 99. In 1774-75 a contribution per garden of Rs. 5 was levied.
1775-76:100. In 1775-76 the contribution per garden was again raised to Rs. 10.
1777-78: 101. This continued till 1777-78.
1778-79: 102. In 1778-79 the second Raja, as already alluded to in paragraph 88, aided by an auxiliary force of 500 Mysoreans, whose pay he had to defray in addition to the tribute, made a. survey of the gardens and fixed the assessment at two-thirds of the gross produce (i.e., 100 per cent, of the pattam), the commutation rate for cocoanuts being Rs. 8 to 10 per 1,000 nuts.
1782: 103. This continued in force, under the Raja, and under Sirdar Khan till 1782, in which year Sirdar Khan having been taken prisoner at Tellicherry, no revenue was raised beyond R.s. 2 per garden levied by the Raja to defray his military charges.
1782-83: 104. From 1782-83 till 1786-87, during Arshad Beg Khan’s governorship, the collections were made on the principle of taking 100 per cent, of the pattam, (rent) on gardens.
1787: 105. In 1787 Tippu Sultan's Parvana to the Raja prescribed certain rates for gardens, which, however, as they were never enforced, need not be detailed.
1788: 106. In 1788 Ramalinga Pillay (mentioned in paragraph 93 above) made a survey of the gardens and assessed them at the following rates :
Pepper gardens were inspected, the produce in dry pepper estimated, and each seer of dry pepper was assessed at 12½ annas of a Cunteray fanam, equivalent to about Rs. 7 5 per candy of 640 lb.
1780-91: 107. The assessment remained at these rates during 1789-90 and 1790-91.
1791-98: 108. The Raja having been reinstated in his Nad, managed it from 1791 till 1798, but it has not been ascertained on what principles he collected the assessment.
1798-99: 109. In 1798-99 a survey was made and the assessment fixed at 60 per cent, of the pattam (rent) on gardens, commuted into money at the following rate:-
The pattam (rent) of four productive betel-nut trees was assessed at 3 annas 22/5 pics, but it is not clear how this was fixed, and whether trees yielding small produce were classed as unproductive.
Jacks : 6 annas 44/5 pies was taken as the pattam (rent.) per tree.
Pepper was assessed at "half of the produce brought to account,” and, as in the calculation of produce customary deductions were made on the following accounts, viz.:-
20 to 25 per cent, for loss by falling off of grapes between inspection and harvest,
10 to 12 per cent for plucking the pepper, and about
20 per cent, for cultivation expenses,
it follows that the Government share was never more than about one-third of the gross produce. Whether the money valuation exceeded or fell short of that proportion could only be known by a comparison of the commutation rate (Rs. 150 per candy of 640 lbs.) with the actual market prices, which cannot now be ascertained.
1798-99: 110. In 1798-99 Puttada, and Punam (see paragraphs 33 and 34) were assessed at 40 per cent, of the gross produce commuted into money at Rs. 40 per 1,000 seers ; and in the same year Ellu (see paragraph 35) was assessed at 20 per cent, of the gross produce, commuted into money at Rs. 60 per 1,000 seers, and the assessment was extended to garden lands where this kind of cultivation was carried on although the gardens might also be bearing a garden assessment.
(8) Payyormala ; (9) Payanad ; (10) Kurumbranad ; (11) Tamarasseri
Reasons for grouping Nads: 111. It will be convenient to group these Nads together in this narrative because the principles of the original assessment under Hyder Ali were identical in all.
Payyormala Nayars. Limits: 112. Payyormala was subject to the Nayars (Paleri, Avinyat and Kutali) of Payyormala. They were independent chieftains, with some theoretical dependence on the Kurumbranad family and also on the Zamorin. The Nad was composed of the following modern amsams of the modern Kurumbranad taluk, viz.:—
Paleri. Cheruvannur. Meppayur. Perambra.Kayanna. Karayad. Iringatt.
Zamorin's acquisitions. Limits: 113: Payanad was subject to the Zamorin, being part of the ancient kingdom of Kollam which he annexed. It was composed of the following modern amsams of the modern taluk of Kurmubranad, viz.:-
Kilariyur. Mudadi. Pallikkara.Meladi. Viyyur. Arikkulam.Melar. Chemancheri. Tiruvangur.
Kurumbranad Raja’s Limit: 114. Kurumbranad was subject to the Kurumbranad family, connected with that of Kottayam. It consisted of the following modern amsams of the modern taluks of Kurumbranad and Calicut, viz.:
Kottur. Trikkutisseri. Naduvannur.Kavantara. lyyad. Panangad.Nediyanad. Kilakkot. Madavur.
Kottayam Raja's District. Limits: 115. Tamarasseri was subject to the Kottayam or Cotiote Rajas (regarding whom see paragraph 78 above). It consisted of the following modern amsams of the modern taluks of Kurumbranad and Calicut, viz.:-
1776-77: In 1776-77 an account of the pattam of the different lands having been taken by the inhabitants to Hyder’s durbar, and the price of paddy having been stated at Rs. 35 to 40 per 1,000 local seers, an order was received in reply, directing that 30 per cent, of the pattam should be taken and commuted into money at 3 old Viray fanams (12 annas modern money) for each of the local paras (10 local seers), of which there were more than one. As they varied in capacity the commutation rates per 1,000 Macleod seers varied likewise as follows:-
Arshad Beg Khan's remission of 20 per cent: 117. In 1782-83 Arshad Beg Khan, Tippu Sultan's Governor, on receipt of complaints, reduced the jama (demand) 20 per cent, all round on wet lands and gardens, but left the distribution of this reduction on individuals to be carried out by his subordinates. To what extent this reduction was ever carried out in regard to individuals, it is impossible to say. This reduction took effect in these Nads and in the whole of South Malabar except in Nads XXIII, XXIV and XXV.
Tippu Sultan substituted Sultani fanams for old Viray fanams, involving increase of 12½ percent: 118. In 1786-87 Tippu Sultan ordered a coinage of Sultani fanams, and the collections were afterwards made in these instead of in old Viray fanams. As old Viray fanams were worth four to the rupee, and as Sultani fanams, though of higher value originally, had in 1788-89 fallen in value to 3½ per rupee, the substitution of Sultani fanams for old Viray fanams had the effect of raising the revenue at least 12½ per cent, all round on wet lands, gardens, and miscellaneous lands. This increase, as in the case of Arshad Beg Khan’s reduction, had effect in these Nads and in nearly the whole of South Malabar.
When the Zamorin, on his restoration in 1790-91, recommenced the coinage of fanams, called new Viray fanams, he adhered pretty closely to the standard of Tippu Sultan’s Sultani fanams, viz., 3½ to the rupee. The assessment, therefore, at this time suffered no change on this account.
1792-94: 119. In 1792-94 a kind of survey was made in consequence of a request preferred by the inhabitants to the Bengal and Bombay Commissioners that half of the “rice produce" (sic, vide paragraph 459 of their report) should be taken as revenue. It is extremely doubtful that this was their request, and it is more probable they meant the Government share to be 50 per cent, of the pattam (rent.); but however this may be, what was actually done was by adherence to the old principles to endeavour, as far as possible, to keep the revenue at the old amount.
Then 10 per cent cess for collection charges: 120. The second Commission, following a practice which had to some extent elsewhere been introduced by the Mysorean‘s and by the Joint Commissioners, added 10 per cent, to the jama (demand) in order to defray collection charges. The Mysoreans never, however, included this 10 per cent, in the permanent jama as the Commissioners did. The exact date is not known, but it was between 1796 and 1801.
The original assessments in those Nads were nominally the same as those in South Malabar districts generally, viz. :—
One old Viray fanam per two cocoanut trees.
Ono do. per six betel-nut trees.
One do. per jack tree.
Three do. per pepper-vine estimated to yield 15 seers of green pepper.
But the settlement really proceeded on the principle of taking 100 per cent, of the pattam (rent), ascertained partly by inspection of trees, partly by deeds, and partly by information obtained from the people. The commutation rates were, however, the customary rates between Janmis and Ryots in fixing the pattam rates, which were admittedly below the market prices of produce. Those customary rates were –
Rs. A P
Cocoanuts 7 8 0 per 1,000 nuts.
Betel-nuts 0 4 0 do.
Jacks 0 4 0 per tree.
If Janmis chose to break through the ancient customs and regulated their dealings with their Ryots at market prices, these rates left a margin for payment of some pattam (rent).
Arshad Beg Khan’s remission of 20 per cent: 122. Arshad Beg Khan’s reduction of 20 per cent, on the jama (demand), Tippu Sultan’s increase of 12½ per cent., and the second Commissioner’s increase of 10 per cent, (vide paragraphs 117, 118, 120 above) affected the garden assessments in these Nads likewise.
123. Modan and Ellu (vide paragraphs 33 and 35 above) were assessed by orders from Mysore in Hyder Ali’s time at 20 per cent, of the produce, commuted into money, the Modan produce at Rs. 35 to 40 per 1,000 local seers, and Ellu at Rs. 50 to 55 per 1,000 local seers.
(12) Polanad (Vadakkampuram and Kilakkampuram) ;
(13) Beypore or Northern Parappanad; (14) Pulavayi.
Reasons grouping: 124. These Nads, which constitute the greater portion of the modern taluk of Calicut, will be best taken together, as they seem to have been managed as regards revenue on an uniform plan.
Zamorin's acquisition of Polanad. Limits: 25. Polanad was one of the districts immediately subordinate to the Zamorin, who took it originally by stratagem from the Porlatiri Rajas. It was the Nad in which Calicut, the Zamorin’s headquarters, was situated. It consisted of the following modern amsams of the modern taluk of Calicut, viz.
Parappur Raja's Limits: 126. Beypore or Northern Parappanad was subject to the Beypore branch of the Parappur family of Kshatriyas under the nominal suzerainty of the Zamorin. In consisted of the following modern amsams in the modern taluk of Calicut, viz.:
The Huzzur Niguti. 1776-77: 128. In 1776-77 Sirdar Khan, Hyder Ali’s Civil and Military Governor, prepared certain accounts and sent them to Hyder Ali’s durbar, where they were revised, and upon them an assessment, was founded, which has usually been designated as the Huzzur Niguti, or assessment fixed at the seat of Government. Neither in Sirdar Khan’s accounts nor in those received back from the durbar was it specifically expressed what proportion of the pattam (rent) or of the gross produce was intended to be taken as the Government share.
The Niguti vittu or assessed seed: 129. But Mr. Graeme ascertained on local inquiry that the Government share varied in these Nads on wet lands from 25 per cent, of the pattam (rent) in Nads XIII and XIV and in six Desams of Nad XII to 30 per cent, in the remaining fifty-seven Desams in Nad XII.
This proportion of the produce came to be known as the Niguti Vittu or assessed seed. Each local para (10 local seers) of Niguti Vittu or assessed seed was commuted into money at 3 old gold fanams, but on complaint of the severity of this rate, Sirdar Khan reduced the commutation rate in the fifty-seven Desams ot Nad XII [where 30 per cent, of the pattam (rent) was taken] from 3 to 2½ old gold fanams. The commutation rate, therefore, varied from 10 to 12 annas per local para (10 local seers) of Niguti Vittu, or, to state the matter differently, for the purpose of general comparison, from Rs. 50 to Rs. 60 per 1,000 Macleod seers.
130. Arshad Beg Khan’s reduction of 20 per cent, and Tippu Sultan’s increase of 12½ per cent, (see paragraphs 117, 118 above) were applied to the rice-lands in these Nads.
1791-94: In 1791-92 to 1793-94 a return was gradually made to the jama (demand) at the above rates.
132. The 10 per cent, for charges of collection (vide paragraph 120 above) was also added to the demand.
1793-94: 133. In 1793-94 there was a sort of a survey, but the old principles were adhered to, and the main point kept in view was not to exceed the aggregate of the former jama (demand).
Huzur Niguti : The Huzur Niguti (see paragraph 128 above) fixed the rates of assessment on garden produce as follows:-
100 percent of pattam taken as assessment: These rates, however, were perhaps never as matter of fact applied in practice. The Mysore Government, it is understood, meant to appropriate the whole of the Janmi’s share of the produce, or in other words 100 per cent, of pattam (rent).
What was understood by a 'productive tree’: In order to do this and at the same tine to preserve some uniformity in the principle of taxation, their officers entered in the accounts as “productive” only the number of trees or vines which, at the above rates, it took to make up the total jama (demand). All other trees, whether productive or not, were classed as “unproductive.” For example, 10 fanams of pattam (rent) would be reckoned as 20 productive cocoanut trees. In some localities this number of trees might produce 10 fanams of pattam (rent), but in other localities it would take 30 or 40, or, perhaps, 60 really productive trees to makeup 10 fanams of pattam (rent) ; in these cases 20 trees only would be returned as productive, while the balance of 10, 20 or 40 trees respectively, though really productive, would be returned as "unproductive.”
And so with pepper-vines, the 3 fanams per productive vine was not an assessment on each vine, or even (as was sometimes thought) on each standard tree supporting a number of vines, but upon any number of vines - varying, as it necessarily must have done, with the fertility of soil and congeniality of climate—that were estimated to yield 15 seers of green pepper (or 6 seers of dry pepper). The whole of the pattam (rent) thus taken as revenue was, however, commuted into money at rates which still left the Janmi (if he chose to break through the ancient customary rule and take it) a small share of the produce. The customary commutation rates in these Nads were as follows :
which were considerably below market prices.
135. Arshad Beg Khan’s reduction of 20 per cent, and Tippu Sultan’s increase of 12½ per cent, and the Commissioner’s increase of 10 per cent, for establishment charges (see paragraphs 117, 118 and 120 above), were applied to the garden assessments in these Nads.
136. Modan (sec paragraph 33 above) was only assessed by the Mysoreans in Nads Nos. XIII and XIV, and there at the rate of 20 per cent, of the gross produce at current market prices. Ellu (see paragraph 35) was unassessed by the Mysoreans, except when it was sown instead of Modan in Nads Nos. XIII and XIV. In the latter event the Mysore Government took in some places 5 Sultani fanams 3½ to the rupee) for every Macleod seer of seed sown, and in other places 20 per cent, of the gross produce at current market prices.
1801-2: 137. In 1801-2 Major Macleod, the first Principal Collector, included in the permanent jama (demand) of those Nads 20 per cent of the gross produce in that year of Modan and Ellu lands [commuted into money assessments at 1 new Viray fanam (3½ to the rupee) and 2½ new Viray fanams respectively per para (10 seers), dividing the amount thus arrived at into three portions, and collecting one-third annually, the lands being cultivated only once in three years. These commutation rates were equivalent to Rs. 28-9-15/7 and Rs. 71-0-102/7 per 1,000 Macleod seers respectively. To the above he also added the 10 per cent, for charges of collection (see paragraph 120).
(15) Southern Parappanad ; (16) Ramnad; (17) Chernad ; (18) Ernad.
Reasons for grouping: 138. As the Huzzur Niguti (see paragraphs 128,129 and 134) was the rule of assessment in these four Nads, and grouping as these Nads constitute nearly the whole of the modern taluk of Ernad, it will be convenient to take them together, although the modes of applying the Huzzur Niguti varied great in each of them.
Parappur Raja's Limits: 139. Southern Parappanad, under the Parappur family with the Zamorin as nominal suzerain (see paragraph 126), consisted of the following modern amsams of the modern taluk of Ernad, viz. :
The Zamorin’s territory
The territory: 140. Ramnad, Chernad and Ernad all acknowledged the Zamorin as direct ruler. They consisted of the following modern amsams of the modern taluks of Ernad and Ponnani :
1776-77:141. Graeme ascertained that the Huzzur Niguti (see paragraph 128), as assessed in these Nads in bore the following proportions to pattam (rent) at the following commutation rates calculated in the manner detailed in paragraph 129 above:-
Percentage of pattam taken as assessed seed, Niguti vittu:
142. Arshad Beg Khan’s reduction of 20 per cent. Tippu Sultan’s increase of 12½ per cent., and the 10 per cent, addition for collection charges (see paragraphs 117, 118 and 120) all took effect on the wet lands of these Nads.
1791—94: 143. The old jama (demand) was gradually worked up to in 1791-92 to 1793-94, and collected as far as possible up to 1800-1.
1801-3: 144. Major Macleod made a sort of survey or inspection and increased the jama (demand) in 1801-2, without, however, presumably altering the principles of the assessment. Owing to the rebellion which ensued, the old jama (demand) of 1800-1 was reverted to by Mr. Rickards in 1802-3.
1803-4: 145. In 1803-4, however, Mr. Warden, third of the Principal Collectors, directed one-fourth of the increase to the jama (demand) made by Major Macleod to be collected in Nad No. XV and in one desam—Puttur—in Nad No. XVII. To this increase he superadded 10 per cent, for charges of collection (vide paragraph 120).
The Huzrur Niguti (see paragraph 134) was introduced by Ramalinga Pillay (Hyder Ali’s agent) in all these Nads on the same footing as in the Calicut Taluk Nads, viz., that 100 percent, of the pattam (rent) was taken and commuted into money at the customary rates prevalent in all of these Nads, viz.
These rates were admittedly below the market prices, and left a small margin as pattam if the Janmi thought right to take it.
147. It appears, however, that in the assessment of the gardens in Nad No. XV and in Bettatnad (Nad No. XXVI), some small additional share was left over for the Janmi in manner following. The trees were divided as usual into productive, unproductive, and young, and a pattam (rent) calculated in money was arrived at (after making a deduction of one-third, it is supposed, as the Ryot’s share).
From the pattam (rent) so ascertained a deduction of 2 old viray fanams in 10 (i.e. 20 per cent.) was made for the benefit of the Janmis,1 and the residue, viz., 8 fanams in 10, was then entered in the accounts as 16 productive cocoanut trees in accordance with the rule of the Huzzur Niguti (paragraph 13-4).
NOTEs: 1. Mappillas (Mulmmmadans) predominated then as they still in these parts. END OF NOTEs
1803-4: 148. In Nad No. XV and in one Desam—Puttur—of Nad No. XVII also one-fourth of Major Macleod’s increase appears to have been levied by Mr. Warden in 1803-4 as in the case of wet lands (paragraphs144 and 145). To this increase was superadded 10 per cent, for collection charges.
149. Arshad Beg Khan’s reduction of 20 per cent., Tippu Sultan's increase of 12½ per cent., and the 10 per cent, for collection charges (see paragraphs 117, 118, 120) also affected the gardens in these Nads.
150. The Nads were treated somewhat differently in the assessment of Modan (sec paragraph 33), Punam (paragraph 34) and Ellu (paragraph 35) were not assessed in these Nads.
1801-2: 151. Modan in Nad XV. The Mysore Government applied the same rules as in Nads XIII and XIV (vide paragraph 136), i.e. they took 20 per cent, of the gross produce in years when the crop was cultivated and commuted the share into money at current market prices, and Major Macleod, in similar fashion as in the Nads XIII anti XIV, took one-third of the assessment, of the year 1801-2 and included it in the permanent jama (demand) of the Nad (see paragraph 137).
152. Modan in Nad XVI was exempt from assessment till Major Macleod ’s time, 1801-2, in which year he assessed it as follows:-
One local para (10 local seers) in every seven paras of gross produce was selected as the Government share, and of this selected share one para in five (i.e., 1/35 of the gross produce or 26/7 per cent.) was taken and commuted into a money assessment at 6 new Viray fanams (Rs. 1-11-5 1/7) per para. The assessment thus fixed was collected in three years at one- third per year (see paragraph 137.)
153. Modan in Nad XVII was exempt from assessment till Major Macleod’s time in 1801-2, in which year he assessed the crop as follows: 20 percent, of the gross produce was selected as the Government share, and out of every five paras (50 seers) of the share thus selected one para (10 seers) (i.e.1/25 2) or 4 per cent of the gross produce was taken and assessed at 3 new Viray fanams (As.- 13-8 4/7) per para (10 seers). This assessment was likewise spread over three years.
NOTEs. 2. 21/5 of 1/5 = 1/25. END OF NOTEs
154. Modem in Nad XV1II. In assessing the Huzzur Niguti in this Nad in 1776-77, additions were made to the permanent jama (demand) in 99 Desams out of 116 in the following fashion:-
(a). On every para (10 seers) of assessed seed of wet lands (see paragraph 141).
(b). On every 3 fanams of garden assessment (see paragraph 146),
one-half of a fanam was imposed on account of Modan, and Major Macleod in 1801-2 completed the Modan assessment (wherever it had already been imposed) in the manner and on the principles described for Nad No. XVII (paragraph 153).
(19) Vellattri (Walluvanad Proper); (20) Walluvanad; (21) Nedunganad ; (22) Kavalappara.
Reasons for grouping: 155. As those Nads constitute the modern taluk of Walluvanad and as the Huzzur Niguti (paragraphs 128, 134) was the mode of assessment adopted in them in 1776-77, it will be convenient to take them together. Prior to 1776-77 these Nads were subjected by the Mysoreans to violent and irregular collections under the name of Nuzzurs or Perumbuddy.
The Walluvanad Raja's Limits: 156. Vellattri or Walluvanad proper was the sole remaining territory of the Walluvanad Raja (Valluva Konatiri), who once exercised suzerain rights over a large portion of South Malabar. His territory had been gradually broken up by the Zamorin. At the time of the Mysore conquest there remained to him the following modern amsams of the modern taluks of Walluvanad and Ernad, viz. : —
The Zamorin's latest acquisition. Limits: 157. Walluvanad was apparently the latest acquisition by Zamorin at the expense of the Walluvanad Raja. It consisted of the following modern amsams of the modern taluk of Walluvanad:-
The Zamorin's territory. Limits: 158. Nedunganad had for some time been under the Zamorin. It consisted of the following modern amsams of the modern taluk of Walluvanad, viz.
The Kavalappara Nayar. Limits: 159. Kavalappara under its own Nayar chief owed a sort of nominal allegiance both to the Cochin Raja and to the Zamorin. The Commissioners eventually decided in favour of his independence. His territory consisted of the following modern amsams of the modern taluk of Walluvanad, viz.
160. Mr. Graeme ascertained that the Huzzur Niguti (paragraph 128). as assessed in 1776-77 in the Nads1- in Nad No. 19 by Mohidin Muppan and in Nad No. 22 by Haidros Kutti Muppan— bore the following proportions to pattam (rent) and at the following commutation rates :
But as regards the commutation rate for Kavalappara between 1776 and 1790-91 see paragraph 161 below regarding the Modan assessment.
NOTEs: 1. The names of the officers who settled Nads Nos. 20 and 21 have not been handed down. END OF NOTEs
161. Arshad Beg Khan’s reduction of 20 per cent., Tippu Sultan's increase of 12½ per cent,, and the 10 per cent, for collection charges— the latter cess levied as early as 1778-79 in Nads 19 and 22—all affected the wet lands of these Nads (see paragraphs 117, 118 and 120 above).
162. In all of these Nads the whole of the pattam (rent), calculated in money and founded upon a valuation of the gross produce existing for a long time back between Janmis and Ryots was taken and converted into an assessment of account in the manner already described for other Nads (see paragraph 134). The customary rates for produce prevalent in all of these Nads were as follows:
which rates were considerably below the actual prevailing market prices, and left to the Janmi (if he cared to break through custom and take it) a portion of the actual produce of the gardens.
163. Arshad Beg Khan’s reduction of 20 per cent., Tippu Sultan’s increase of 12½ per cent, and the 10 per cent, levied for collection charges (vide paragraphs 117, 118 and 120 above) all affected the garden assessments in all of these Nads.
164. The assessment of Modan (see paragraph 13) in these Nads was made at different times and in different manners, and Ellu (paragraph 35) was assessed in only one of the Nads.
165. Modan in Vellattri (Walluvanad proper) was assessed in 1776-77 on the following principles, The “produce” having been ascertained, 30 per cent, of it was selected as the Niguti Vitta (see paragraph 129), and a money assessment fixed on it at the rate of half old Viray fanam (2 annas) per local para (10 seers), which, as the para in use was equal to a standard para, gave a commutation rate of Rs. 12½ per 1,000 Macleod seers.
In 1796-97 to 1800-1 the whole of the Modan assessment of this Nad was remitted under orders of Mr. Stevens, the Supervisor, as he was then styled. In 1801-2, Major Macleod (first Principal Collector) revived the assessment, taking 20 per cent, of the gross produce and commuting it into money at a rate equivalent to Rs. 16-5-234/49 per 1000 Macleod seers.
In 1815, in a portion of this Nad, the Modan assessment of 1801-2 was apportioned at various rates on the wet land assessments and consolidated with them. In the rest of the Nad the previous system continued to prevail, but the jama fixed in 1801-2 had always to be realised. If the assessments exceeded the jama no action was taken, but, if they fell short, then the assessments were raised to the requisite pitch by increasing the commutation rate so as to bring the assessments for the year up to the level of the jama (demand) of 1801-2.
1801-2: 166. Modan in Walluvanad and Nedunganad was apparently not assessed till 1801-2, when Mr. Drummond, Sub-Collector, fixed it at 20 per cent, of the gross produce, commuted into money at rates equivalent in some parts to Rs. 19-0-91/7, and in other parts lo Rs. 16-5-234/49 per 1,000 Macleod seers.
1776-77: 167. Modan in Kavalappara was assessed in 1776-77 at the rate of one-fourth old Viray fanam per local para of Niguti Vittu (see paragraph 129) on all wetlands, that is, in effect the wet lands assessment was increased from 4 to 41/4 old Viray fanams per local para of Niguti Vittu. Owing to this the commutation rate on wet lands was raised from Rs. 100 to Rs. 106-4-0 per 1,000 Macleod seers. On this increase 10 per cent, for collection charges was also levied. In 1790-91 to 1795-96, under the Honourable Company's rule, the Modan assessment seems to have been revised with reference to the arrangement prevailing in Nad No. 19. Instead, however, of taking 30 per cent of the produce as in Nad No. 19, only 20 per cent, was taken, and the remaining 10 per cent, was remitted on behalf of the Janmis.
On the above 20 per cent, of produce a rate was fixed of 1 fanam 51/3 annas per 2 paras (20 seers) or ½ paras (15 seers) per fanam, or Rs. 16-10-8 per 1,000 Macleod seers. It would also seem as if the permanent demand for Modan assessed on the wet lands was also at the same time remitted.
1770-1802: 168. Ellu in Vellttri (Walluvanad proper) was assessed from 1776-77 on the same principles as Modan (see paragraph 165), viz., from 1776-77 till 1796-97 at 30 per cent, of the ascertained produce; between 1796-97 and 1800-1 the assessment was relinquished altogether ; and after 1801- 2 the shares of the produce taken as Niguti Vittu (vide paragraph 129) was 20 per cent. The commutation rates varied similarly, viz:-
(23) PALGHAT OR VADAMALAPURAM ; (24) TEMMALAPURAM ; (25) NADUVATTAM
Reasons for grouping: 169. These Nads, constituting the present taluk of Palghat, may be conveniently considered together, because in revenue matters, after the Mysore occupation, they were treated, with one exception, on all uniform plan, and because a few remarks are required regarding their political and revenue history at and about this time (1765-66).
Political events immediately preceding 1765-66: 170. The following appears to be the political history of this part of the country at the above time. Some time previously to 1757 the territories of the Palghat Rajas had suffered by severe inroads on the part of the Cochin and Walluvanad Rajas and of the Zamorin. The former had possessed himself of the Chittur territory lying east of Palghat.
The Walluvanad Raja had obtained a nominal sovereignty over the three Nayarships of Kongad, Edattara, and Mannur, lying in the north-west of the present taluk, and the Zamorin had possessed himself of the division of the country called Naduvattam (Nad No. 25). To protect his territory from further dismemberment, the Palghat Raja had offered to become, and had been accepted as, a tributary of the Mysore Rajas, still best known in Malabar as the Rajas of Kongu or Kongunad. The tribute was 12,000 old Viray fanams per annum, was designated as Rakshabhogam, and was met, without assessment of land tax from the ordinary revenues of the country.
In 1757 or thereabouts the Zamorin seems to have overrun the remaining territory of the Palghat Raja and imposed a land-tax, called Kavalphanam upon it similar to one already in force in the Naduvattam Nad No. 25, and designed to meet the expenses of the force required as a defence against Mysore. It amounted to one-fourth old Viray fanam per local para (10 seers) of seed-land, i.e., land required to sow one para (10 seers) of seed in a single crop. But the Raja of Palghat applied to Hyder Ali, then Foujdar of Dindigul, in the service of Chick Deo Raj, the nominal sovereign of Mysore.
On this application Hyder Ali sent a force under his brother-in-law, Muckh doom Sahib, who drove back the Zamorin’s Nayars and the Zamorin thereupon sought to compromise matters by agreeing to pay Rs. 12,00,000 as a military contribution, and by restoring the conquests he had made from Palghat, from which, however, the Naduvattam Division (Nad No. 25) seems to have been exempted.
Hyder Ali afterwards made over his right to the Rs. 12,00,000 to one of the ministers of the puppet Raja of Mysore and when Hyder Ali at last usurped the Government of Mysore this claim became one of his pretexts for invading the country. After the invasion (1765-66) the Naduvattam Nad (No. 25) seems to have been managed, along with Nads 23 and 24, by the Palghat Raja’s nephew as an agent of Hyder Ali.
The northern Division of Palghat: 171. Palghat or Vadmalapuram comprised the following modern amsams in the modern taluk of Palghat, viz:-
The Southern Division of Palghat: 172. Temmalapuram comprised the following modern amsams of the modern taluk of Palghat, viz.
Chulanur. Vadakkettara. Kattusseri. Kavasseri. Tirur.Kannanurpattola. Ayakkad. MangaIam. Vadakkancheri. Chittalancheri
The Zamorin's territory: 173. Naduvattom comprised of the following modern amsams in the modern taluk of Palghat, viz.:-
1765-66: 174. In 1765-66 Itti Kombi Achan, Palghat Raja’s nephew, as an agent of Hyder’s on his invasion of the country in that year, increased the rate of assessment to one old Viray fanam per para (10 seers) of seed land (see paragraph 170).
1773-74. Sullayad Khan's reduction of assessment in Nads 23 and 24:175. In 1773-74 Sullayad Khan (commonly called Darogha Sahib) Hyder Ali's Dewan, raised the assessment to 1½ fanams per local para (10 local seers) of seed-land, but on complaint of its oppressiveness he reduced it in Nads 23 and 24 in the following manner. When the land yielded 5 paras (50 seers) of pattam (rent) for each para (10 seers) of seed sown, the rate was maintained ; but, when the land yielded a less pattam, he preserved the rate, but assessed it on a proportionately smaller quantity seed, e.g:-
10 paras of seed-land yielding 50 paras or pattam (rent) were entered in accounts as 10 paras.
10 do. 40 do. 8 do.
10 do. 30 do. 6 do.
10 do. 20 do. 4 do.
On these 10, 8, 6 and 4 paras respectively, he assessed his rate of 1½ fanams per para. The paras of seed-land shown in the accounts were therefore here, as well as elsewhere in the Southern Districts, factitious measures of assessment quite unconnected with the quantity of grain required to sow the land.
176. Calculating on these figures, it therefore seems that the rate of assessment in Nads 23 and 24 was 20 per cent of the pattam (rent), converted into money at Rs. 53-9-15/7 per 1,000 Macleod seers; but of course the assessment falls heavier than this in Nad 25. What ratio it bears to pattam in that Nad, it is impossible to say. Moreover in Nad 24 Modan and Ellu (paragraphs 33-35) were assessed at 8 annas per head on all persons paying wet land assessment. This increased also to some extent the wet land assessments in that Nad (vide paragraph 183).
1781-82: 177: In 1781-82 Palghat was transferred from the Mysore Cutcherry of Calicut to that of Seringapatam.
I78. Consequently Arshad Beg Khan’s reduction of 20 per cent, in the jama (demand) did not extend to these Nads (see paragraph 117).
179. But on the other hand Tippu Sultan's increase of 12½ per cent (paragraph 118) did affect the wet lands in these Nads.
Itti Kombi Achan's 5 per cent, cess for establishment.- Increased to 10 per cent under Honourable Company: 180. Moreover in Darogha Sahib's time (paragraph 175) Itti Kombi Achan established a Parbutti Menon (Accountant) and two or three Kolkars (Peons) in each Desam to collect the revenue, and imposed for the purpose of paying them, an additional tax of 5 per cent, in some places, and somewhat less in others. Under the Company’s Government this was increased to 10 per cent, (see paragraph 120).
181. Were unassessed under the Mysore Government.
1801-2: 182. In 1801-2 Major Macleod (the first of the Principal Collectors) for the first time imposed taxes on garden at the following rates, with 10 per cent, added (see paragraph 120) for collection charges:-
One new Viray fanam on S productive Coccanut trees.
One do. on 24 do. Betel-nut trees.
One do. on 4 do. Jack trees.
Three-quarter do. on each do. Pepper-vine.
What a "productive” tree or vine was supposed to mean is not now to be ascertained but supposing that the trees actually assessed were really productive trees, and accepting as the average produce per productive tree the exceptionally low rates given in the Janmi Pymaish account of 981 (See paragraph 29 above), then it becomes possible to calculate the ratio between assessment and gross produce, and between assessment and pattam (rent) ; if the pattam be hypothetically taken as two-thirds of the gross produce on Mr. Rickards’ plan (vide Append x XV). The assessment, including the 10 per cent, for collection charges, may be taken as varying.
From about 62 41/49 per cent, of the pattam (rent) on trees yielding an average of 10 nuts per tree at a commutation rate of Rs. 9-6-0 per 1,000 nuts, to about 6717/49 per cent, of the pattam (rent) on trees yielding an average of 10 nuts per tree at a commutation rate of Rs. 8-12-0 per 1,000 nuts on cocoanuts.
And from about 742/77 per cent of the pattam (rent) on trees yielding an average of 386/13 nuts per tree at a commutation rate of 11 annas per 1,000 nuts, to about 813/7 per cent, of the pattam (rent) on trees yielding an average of 386/13, nuts per tree at a commutation rate of 10 annas per 1,000 nuts on betel-nuts.
And 25 per cent of the pattam (rent) on trees yielding an average pattam (rent) of 4 annas 66/7 pies per tree on jacks.
As to pepper, assuming that the same principle was observed in those Nads as elsewhere, and that the assessment was fixed on any number of vines, which were calculated to yield 15lbs. of green or 6lb. of dry pepper, the percentage of the assessment to the gross produce would be about 62½ per cent.
183. Modan and Ellu (see paragraphs 33 and 35) were assessed by the Mysorean Government only in Temmalapuram (Nad No. XXIV), and there the assessment was not on produce or rent, but at the rate of 2 old Viray fanams (8 annas) per individual paying wet land revenue.
The Vettatta Raj extinct. Death, 24th May 1793, of the last Raja. Limits: 184. This Nad was subject to the Vettatta Raja, over whom the Zamorin also claimed certain nominal suzerain rights. The family - a Kshatriya one - became extinct on the death of the last Raja, on 24th May 1793, while the Joint Commissioners were proceeding with the settlement of the Nad. It consisted of the following modern amsams in the modern taluk of Ponnani :
1777: 185. In 1777 Ramalinga Pillay, an agent of Hyder Ali’s Government, upon an inspection of the Janmi’s pattam (rent) accounts of rice-lands, assumed for the whole taluk, for the purpose of introducing the Huzzur Niguti (see paragraphs 128, 129), one local para (10 local seers) of Niguti Vittu (paragraph 129) for every 4 paras of pattam (rent) (i.e. 25 percent), and applied to it a tax of 3 old Viray fanams ( i.e Rs. 75 per 1,000 Macleod seers),
186. But Mr. Graeme ascertained that the actual shares of the pattam taken as Nigiiti Vittu varied greatly as per particulars below:-
1782-83: 187. In 1782-83, in the time of Arshad Beg Khan, a complaint was made of the severity of the assessments, but no attention was paid to it and, on the contrary, two of his subordinates (Venkappa and Venkaji) levied an additional contribution of 15 percent of charges for collection in all the Desams (compare paragraph 120). Arshad Beg Khan’s order regarding reduction of 20 per cent extended to this Nad, but whether it was ever acted on is extremely doubtful (see paragraph 117). Tippu’s increase of 12½ per cent affected this Nad (paragraph 118).
1790-91: 189. Between 1790-01 and 1793-04 the full revenue at the above rates was gradually revived and collected with some balances till 1800-1.
1801-3: 189. Major Macleod’s survey or rather inspection in 1801-2, followed by an attempt to collect the increased revenue, resulted in a rebellion, and Mr. Rickards in 1802-3 reverted to the settlement of 1800-1.
1803-4: 190. In 1803-4 however, Mr. Warden, the next of the Principal Collectors, directed one-fourth of the increase to the assessment fixed by Major Macleod’s survey to be collected. This increase, it may be presumed, did not affect the principles of the settlement in force.
191. To this increase was superadded 15 per cent for charges of collection (see paragraph 187).
1777-78: 192. In introducing, in 1777-78, the Huzzur Niguti (paragraph 134) in this Nad, Ramalinga Pillay left a small margin for the proprietor, viz. 20 per cent of the pattam (rent), in the manner already described in paragraph 147, so that only 80 per cent of the pattam (rent) was taken as assessment in this Nad. There is no record of what the customary commutation rates between Janmis and Ryots were in this Nad, but it is likely they were the same as in the neighbouring Nads and in all other Nads in South Malabar except Nos. 23, 24 and 25.
193. Arshad Beg Khan's, reduction of 20 percent, and Tippu Sultan's increase of 12½ per cent (paragraphs 117, 118) were applied to the garden lands in this Nad.
1790-94: 194. In 1790-91 to 1793-94 the full assessment at the above rates was gradually revived.
1801-2: 195. Major Macleod, in 1801-2, increased the assessment on gardens as on wet lands (paragraph 189). Mr. Rickards also reverted to the previous settlement of 1809-1 (paragraph 189), and Mr. Warden likewise, in 1803-4, levied one-fourth of Major Macleod’s increase (paragraph 190).
196. The establishment charges percentage was likewise in per cent on gardens as on wet lands (paragraph 187), and was levied on the one-fourth of Major Macleod’s increase by Mr. Warden.
197. Under the Mysore Government the same rules were applied in this Nad as in Nads No 13 and 15 to the assessment of Modan (paragraph 33), viz., 20 percent of the gross produce, valued at current market rates, wherever that, crop was cultivated (see paragraph 136).
In 62 Desams, 20 per cent of the gross produce was taken as the pattam (rent), and of this pattam (rent) 25 per cent (or, say, 5 per cent, of the gross produce) was taken as assessment and commuted at the rate of Rs. 85-11-5-1/7 per 1,000 Macleod seers.
In 7 Desams, every para (10 seers) of seed sown was assessed at one new Viray fanam. Assuming the outturn to be five-fold, the assessment would be 20 per cent, of the gross produce, valued at Rs. 28-9-1-5/7 per 1,000 Macleod seers.
199. In the 62 Desams, the crop was further assessed at 15 per cent, for collection charges (see paragraphs 120, 187) and in the 7 Desams at 10 per cent.
1801-2: 200. After 1801-2 fresh assessments continued to be levied on the Mysore principles, viz., 20 per cent, of gross produce at current market rates.
201. The cultivation of Ellu (paragraph 35) being very inconsiderable was not assessed in this Nad.
(27) KUTNAD; (28) CHAVAKKAD AND CHETVAI.
Chetvai Island. Limits: 202. The Zamorin at the time of the Mysore invasion possessed suzerain rights over both of these Nads, except over the island of Chetvai, consisting of the following amsams of the modern taluk or Ponnani, viz. :-
Political events: This island had from 1717 been in the possession of the Dutch, from whom, however, it was taken by Hyder Ali in 1776 and in turn from the Mysoreans by the Honourable Company in 1790.
Limits: The above two Nads consisting of the following modern amsams of Ponnani:-
1765-66: 203. In 1765-66 Hyder Ali paid a visit to these Nads, and his agents and his tributary, the Coimbatore Raja (Maha Deo Raj, usually styled Madavan in Malabar), afterwards till 1767-68 managed the country and levied irregular and violent contributions both on the personal and on the real property of the inhabitants.
1767-68: 204. From 1767-68 till 1773 those Nads were again under the Zamorin.
1773: 205. In 1773 Chunder Row and Sreenivas Row came with troops and wrested the country from the Zamorin. By their orders the Nads were rented to Mohidin Muppan and Haidros Kutti, who collected 100 per cent, of the pattam (rent), but finding that insufficient to enable them to meet their engagements, they imposed further contributions and seized personal property. Finding this means also fail, they carried some of the inhabitants to Seringapatain with whatever accounts of the pattam (rent) were extent.
1777-78: 206. On their return in 1777-78 they commenced to collect what they called the Huzzur Niguti (paragraphs 128,129) upon an actual reaping and measuring of the crop, taking two-thirds of the gross preclude as the Government share on rice-lands and leaving one-third to the cultivator. The consequence was the people fled and the lands lay uncultivated.
207. About this time Ramalinga Pillay came under orders from Hyder Ali and made a survey, but the amount fell short of the Huzzur Niguti (see paragraphs 128, 129).
1779-80: 208. In 1779-80 Jumien Subahdar was sent by Hyder Ali in consequence of the outcry of the people to equalise the assessment. He ascertained the probable landlord’s rent, styled the Mudalalinra pattam (headman's rent), and took
209. To the above was added 10 per cent., as Chelluvari (charges of collection) (see paragraph 120).
1781-82: 210. In 1781-82 the British possessed the country for a short time and the restored Rajas had the management of it.
211. Arshud Beg Khan's reduction of 20 per cent, and Tippu’s increase of 12½ percent, (see paragraphs 117, 118) affected the assessment on the wet lands.
1785-86: 212. In 1785-86 Krishna Achari, appointed by Arshad Beg Khan to the management, added two-sixteenths of an old Viray fanam, or 12½ percent., to the jama (demand) under the designation of Hecha Niguti.
1790-91: 213. In 1790-91 the Honourable Company allowed the Rajas to manage those Nads, the Chetvai Island being made over to the management of the Raja of Cochin, who continued, with a short interruption, to manage it till 1801, paying a revenue of Rs. 40,000 per annum.
1791-92: 214. In 1791-92 three-fourths and in 1792-93 six -tenths of the old jama (demand) were collected in the Nads, excepting Chetvai Island.
1793-94: 215. In 1793-94 the Honourable Company’s servants and the Rajas collected the full jama (demand) on all cultivated lands, and added another 10 per cent., for charges of collection (see paragraphs 120, 209), and this continued till 1799-1800.
1800-1: 216. In 1800-1 Mr. Drummond, Sub-Collector, increased the revenue by adding an assessment on the uncultivated lands.
1801-2: 217. In 1801-2 the jama (demand) was regulated by Major Macleod’s survey, but Mr. Rickards in 1802-3 annulled it and reverted to that of 1800-1. However, in some places the increase made bv Major Macleod was allowed to remain.
218. The principles of the Huzur Niguti (paragraphs 128, 134) were applied to the garden lands, viz. : 100 per cent of the pattam (rent) was taken at the customary rates usual between Jamnis and Ryots in these Nads, which rates were, as usual in South Malabar,-
considerably below market prices.
219. Arshad Beg Khan’s reduction of 20 per cent, (paragraph 117) extended to the garden assessments.
220. The Mysore Government, and afterwards the Honourable Company, seem both to have imposed 10 per cent, (or 20 per cent., in all) for collection charges (see paragraphs 120, 209 and 215).
221. The Hecha Niguti of Krishna Achari, or a further addition of 12½ per cent., seems also to have been imposed on gardens.
1801-2: 222. Moreover, Major Macleod’s increase in 1801-2 on the garden assessments was not apparently removed.
223. No assessments were imposed on Modan or Ellu (paragraphs 33 and 35), the cultivation of which was inconsiderable.(4) Iruvalinad