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March of the Evil Empires!
English versus the feudal languages!!
Anchor 1
First drafted in 1989. First online edition around 2000
It is foretold! The torrential flow of inexorable destiny!

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It may be noted that these notes are of a very personal nature. Moreover, I need to mention that this was written some 20 years back around 2000. I need to update the information on many items mentioned here. Over the last 20 years, I have gathered a lot of information on many items mentioned here. So, in some cases, the information given here might need to be altered or improved upon.

13 months salary: In the early days of the Indian administration by the British, the bureaucracy was very lean. So, even though the officials were given one month’s paid-leave for them to recoup their mental energies, they were given an incentive to dispense with the leave and get another one-month's pay. So, the total they got was 13 months salary in a year. Now the Indian bureaucracy is an overstaffed, unwieldy structure, wherein you will find a multitude of guys simply pondering over things that really do not require any of them. And, even then, they are still given the benefit of cashing in one month’s unearned salary. This is a significant thing, when the majority of Indians, are literally living on very meagre income, which in many cases don't even come to what an ordinary bureaucrat gets in one day.

Aap: The superlative, higher respectful Hindi word for You, and may roughly be translated as Thou, Thy etc.

Adhikari: The present day Village officer; actually not an officer, and also a very petty official at that, yet he or she can be a source of enduring nuisance to the citizens of India, by simply not giving urgent certificates in time. Many of them, do try to put on a demeanour of a ruffian.

Adhvaida: is the monistic interpretation of Vedanta of by Shankara. Vedanta is actually the last part of the Hindu scriptures, the Vedas.

Adivasi: The tribal folk of India. They are a lost crowd, with most of them with no place to call their own, as most of their traditional habitat, the forests, have been cleared by outsiders, with the active connivance of the officialdom, after independence. Now, the tribal generally survive as domestic servants, and heavily exploited labourers. A recent show of strength by the ‘tribals’ in Kerala to regain their lost land, or some other land as compensation, was crushed with brutal forces, after leading them for months, and months on unending sessions of useless talk by political leaders, with the standard Indian policy of indifference as a technique of troubleshooting.

Afrikaners: The people of Dutch descend living in South Africa. Their language is known as Afrikaan or Taal. It is different from the Dutch language back in Netherlands.

Agent Provocateurs: Persons generally used by unscrupulous administrators, to sabotage any rebellion, by having these agents to go around in the guise of the rebels, and indulge in shocking mass murder and other inhuman activities, which is then reported in the national dailies, evoking a wave of antipathy for the rebels. In the wake of these feelings, the government forces storm into the areas of the rebels, and indulge in terrible violence and even molestation. This item doesn't get any publicity as the people are then fully focused on the destruction of the rebels.

Alexander the Great: Young king of Macedonia, son of King Philip II. Born: at Pella, Macedonia; on the 13th of June 323 BC. He destroyed the Persian Empire and laid the foundations for the Hellenistic world of territorial kingdoms. He was taught by Aristotle, who inspired him with an interest in philosophy, medicine, and scientific investigation. His invading army reached areas now in Pakistan, and some areas bordering modern India.

Andaman & Nicobar Islands: Islands in the Bay of Bengal; was under British control; was handed over to India.

Arranged marriages: In India, only in very rare cases do men and women marry as per their own wish. Actually, there is a component of safety in this. For, the society is shackled in various social positions. And if anyone makes the mistake of marrying from a wrong social class, then it would be story of tragedy and continuing woe for everybody concerned.

Arthashastra: Political treatise wrote by Chanakya, the political advisor of King Chandragupta Maurya, of the ancient Maurya Empire that ruled the geographical area in modern Pakistan, and Northwest India, extending up to East India.

Arundhathi Roy : Author of the novel The God of Small Things. This book won the Booker Prize in 1997. She is from Kerala, the south Indian state, where Malayalam is the spoken language.

Aryan: The people who came to north India, from the West Asian regions, and settled in India. Their early language was Sanskrit. They brought in the four varna caste system to India. The north Indians generally claim to be Aryans. Yet, in this regard, another anomaly may be pointed out: the Germans claim to be Aryans. They do not have the visible features of the north Indians. Yet it is claimed that their language does have some level of connection with Sanskrit.

Ashoka: The famous King of the Maurayan Empire of the ancient times. His Kingdom was based in Magadha, with Pataliputra as his Capital. This place is now identified with modern Patna in Bihar State, in East India.

Assembly: The legislatures in the various States in India. Some states have bicameral legislature; that is, there is an upper house, and a lower house.

Assertiveness of the lower class: I remember an incident in a minor village, where a newcomer tenant engaged an old woman as a domestic help. She was paid a daily wage, which was higher than what she was used to earning, but definitely much less than is decent. This woman had been living in dire circumstances, and the new job was a great help. She definitely displayed a new kind of assertiveness to the younger generation, persons, who were richer than her. By assertiveness, it must be understood that here it meant that she was using lower indicant terms with abandon to these persons. Then one day some of the local men complained to the new tenant about the high wages he was giving her, and indicated that giving a person a means to come out of her social chains is disastrous.

Atlee: The British Prime Minister who came to power immediately after the Second World War. During his tenure, the process of giving the various colonial areas to local politicians was initiated.

Bangalore: Slightly English speaking city in the Southern State of Karnataka in India. It is the capital of this state.

Banning of Slavery: In 1807 Great Britain passed an Act for the Abolition of Slave Trade. It effectively led to the freeing of slaves in many places, including India where there had been innumerable slaves, who lived with no visible complaints. This act was a great financial burden on the British exchequer, for large sums of money had to be set aside for giving as compensation to slave-owners. And, it was entirely a moral and humanitarian act, by the British nation, an equivalent to which, I have not been able to see in human history.

Battle of Plassey: The battle that took place in this village, between the forces of the East India Company under Robert Clive, and between that of the Nawab of Bengal , Siraj-ud-Dawlah. Clive decisively defeated the Nawab, with a numerically insignificant force, and thus paved the way for the British domination of India. The battle took place in 1757. This battle was provoked by the Nawab's attack on the British fort at Calcuttah.

Bengal: The state on the East of India. The headquarters of this state is Calcutta. The division of this state for administrative reasons was claimed by the local political leaders of that time to be a vicious act of the British administrators, to crush the India spirit. Yet, now this state stands divided into many pieces.

BharathaNatyam: Classical dance form of Tamil Nadu, the southern State of India.

Black Sheep: A person who is generally unacceptable in a specific social group, like family etc. for some mental attribute of his.

Bombing of London: Hitler's air force pounded London, in the initial days of the war, to inflict unbearable mental and physical strain on Britain. Yet, it only provoked an efficient retaliation.

Brahmins: The highest caste as per the Vedic Aryan social hierarchy of chathurvarna.

CARE: Cooperation for American Relief everywhere.

Caste: The social hierarchy found in Indian/Hindu society. This social positioning is irrefutable and remains as an innate social quality of the person. According to the ancient charthuvarna or four caste or four colour division of society, the highest level is occupied by the Brahmins, then comes the Kshatriyas, the third comes the Vaishyas, and last the Shudras. Yet, it must be remembered that there are so many other castes in India, which do not come in any of these four. And so, they are generally assigned a lower status to these four. Generally a person marries only from his own caste. In many ways, it is helpful, for inter-caste marriage may bring in a friction of cultures, and family hierarchy.

Chanakya: Also known as Kautilya, and as Vishnugupta, was the author of the book Arthasathra. His period is believed to be the 3rd Century BC. He was the Chief Advisor of King Chandragupta Maurya, of the Maurya Empire, that ruled the northwest portion of the geographical area that now comprises modern India. The book, Arthashasthra was actually a dissertation on many things, including statecraft, polity, managing state economy, techniques of administration etc. He had his education in Taxila, which is a place now in Pakistan. In his book, he openly recommends the use of an elaborate system of espionage, to ferret out the undercurrents of the society at all levels. He finds nothing wrong in secret political assassinations, and advices it as a technique of statecraft. This book was recovered after being lost only in 1905.

Charu Majumdar: The Communist revolutionary of the Naxalbari movement of post Independence times, who was caught by the West Bengal Police, and reputedly beaten to death in Police custody.

Chief Election Commissioner of India: He has statutory powers.

Citizen: Term of address, popularised by the French Revolutionaries, to possibly bring in a more dignified level of social interaction.

Colonialism: The Europeans could take over many geographical areas all around the world, and rule them in varying mode of civility. Many colonial nations were very brutish to their colonies. The examples may be Belgium, Germany etc. At the same time, France was not very negative, possibly because many liberal ideologies were being debated there.

Communism: Socio-political theory expounded by Karl Marx. A form of socialism. Came into real international prominence after the success of power capture by persons, in Russia and China, who used this political philosophy as a front for propaganda and mob mobilisation.

Commutation of Pension: In the early days of Independence, when the British had just left, pension was merely a monthly pay to help a bureaucrat subsist without having to depend on anyone. Later on, the bureaucrat put in their mean mind, and found out that, as it is the money is for them. So, why can't we get it in lump sum? So, it was decided (by themselves) that immediately after retirement, they can opt to get the total of the half of 15 years pension in a lump sum. Only thing was that for the rest of the life he or she would get only half the pension per month. In this case, there was an element of gamble. For, if they died before 15 years, they had gained. If they did not die, there was a slight feeling of a loss. But then, over the years, lifespan has increased, and many retired bureaucrats do not die at 65. So again, the question of commutation was taken up. And then it was decided that after opting for commutation, if they do not die after 15 years, then the pension again becomes full monthly pension, on par with those who had not opted for commutation. Under these conditions, who would not opt for commutation? The problem here is about an unneeded, overstaffed bureaucracy, in a nation, where the majority of the people, who they are supposed to serve, are living in actual penury.

Comrade: Term propagated by the communist party for mutual addressing among its members, possibly to assuage the feudalism in the language spoken by its members.

Costa Nostra: The other name for the Italian underworld clans that operated in the USA.

Crimson Tide: A tension filled film, in which the submarine entrusted to launch the nuclear bomb on a first strike policy, can't decipher the urgent message from the US Military headquarters, as to whether it is to launch the missile or to defer.

Currency value: It is also a very telling illustration of the double standards of Indians, that when they are working abroad, they want the Indian currency to crash to the dustbin. At the same time, the citizens of the English nations enjoy the dignity, the superiority of their money, gives them worldwide. The former is not interested in dignity, but in pure attainment of superiority over his fellow countrymen.

Curry: The food item, which generally comes with as a gravy, and is added to a main food item to increase its taste and edibility.

Delhi: Capital of India. There are two cities in this city: the old Delhi, and the New Delhi. The city is on the banks of River Yamuna, which is a tributary of River Ganges (Ganga). It was the focus and stage of many historical intrigues and commotions. On an average one may say that every 50 years witnessed a real battle scene in the landscapes of Delhi, since medieval times, and since Independence also, there has been times when Delhi literally burnt, and saw street battles. The ancient Hindu empires, and the Sultans of the Slave dynasty, and later on the Moguls, gave much importance to the geographical area with which we now identify Delhi. Even though the British had established themselves pretty well in Calcutta, they moved their Capital of Indian possessions to Delhi. The various layers of historical incidences and multitudes of personages who acted out here are reflected in the innumerable stone structures, gardens, memorials, tombs, and many other conspicuous edifices that abound the various corners and centres of the City. Yet, in many places they are inundated with a massive population, which struggle to survive in the narrow lanes around them. The Red Fort or what is locally known as the Lal Khila is in a place where one can perceive a dense movement of people.

Dewan: The Chief Minister of a King.

Disingenuous crooks: One thing that comes immediately to mind is the unbelievable trade in trapped girls and women who end up in brothels, in India. Bombay is one of the main areas. Girls belonging to the lower financial classes, from Bangladesh, Nepal, Andha Pradesh, tribal areas etc. are tricked, lured, trapped, and then sold. It may safely be asserted that even the crooks that man the Bombay Police are involved in this nefarious trade. And all of those who served in Bombay police would claim many achievements, yet this terrible thing that goes on and on, gets no notice from them. It has even been asserted that this trade is a necessary evil, for it is this factor that gives a lot of safety to the local female of Bombay. And the towering personalities of India are shocked only when a woman of their class gets assaulted. Here the issue is not of individual malevolence, but of state machinery supporting the evil game.

District Collector: The senior most public official in a district. Though a civil official, he has power over the police and has a limited judicial power also. The term Collector came from a former duty of this official during the East India Company rule; that of collecting tax.

Domino effect: One incident or cause having a continuous affect on other people, places, and events.

Dowry: In India, the bride's family is expected to give a handsome gift in the form of money, gold, property etc. to the groom at the time of marriage.

Dravidian: The people of South India are known as Dravidian.

East India Company: In September 1599, a meeting of merchants was held in London, and therein a decision was made to form a company for trading with the Eastern Countries, mainly India. This company received its first charter on the 31st of December 1600. This company was given monopoly of trade between England and all places lying between Cape of Good Hope and Cape Horn. This monopoly that the company held was always a disturbing factor for independent British traders who came to India to trade privately, and they had to get a licence from the company for this. Naturally, there would be friction. The company disliked the free merchants from Britain. For, they remained as a threat to the monopoly of trade that the company aimed for. The licence that the company gave to the free merchant to trade in India was actually a leash on him. For, then he literally became under its power; and the company could very deport him, if it so wished.

This company, formed by private merchants for the purpose of trade, was to consolidate the splintered political entities that littered the geographical landscape that is now identified with modern Pakistan, India and Bangladesh. And rule it till the advent of the Sepoy Mutiny, wherein the British Crown took over the reigns of power.

Ezhavas: An indigenous backward caste of South Kerala, now declared as Other Backward Caste. They were traditionally connected to activities connected with coconut trees, such as climbing etc. Till the advent of the independence, they suffered much social ostracism from the superior castes of Travancore, and were denied equal opportunities for higher public appointments, and educational opportunities. They had a patriarchal social structure.

English Classic writings: Herein I must say that the great writers of English need to be read by all persons who would like to imbibe the supremely dignified English feelings. Here I would like to list out a few authors who I believe should be read, not just for the purpose of enjoying the story, but also for absorbing the finer sides of the English mindset that can still come out with wonderful contributions for posterity. In this regard, I must say that reading English books written with non-English themes, though may be interesting, would not serve the purpose that I mentioned here. Also, reading English translations of books would also be not filling the requirement I mentioned.

Erstwhile Superpower Japan: It is the author's contention that the superiority of nations like Japan's etc. are not long-lived.

Feudalism in Malayalam: Malayalam is progressively becoming more and more feudal in character. The reason needs to be debated in detail, and may not be a part of the main issue of this book.

Fidel Castro: Communist Dictator of Cuba.

First recount of this theme: I had first written the theme in this book, as early as 1989. Actually, the basic materials for this book were in mind at a very early age. For, when I was in my fifth class, age 10, I was impressed by the different social stature that I experienced in an English environment to that was extended to me in a Malayalam social environment. My first writing was about 17,000 words, which I did show to some persons for reading; and I did get a very good opinion about it. Yet, I had no one of calibre enough in my own circles to debate this issue on. But some persons did take copies of my article. In 1999, I had one typist to enter the whole theme into a computer. But she made a lot of mistakes in typing, that many paragraphs got mixed up and lines lost. But I was not aware of this fact. Later I learnt to use computers, and went on to add bits of themes here and there, all the time unaware of the great mistakes that had cropped up in the original writing. This time the article came to have around 33,000 words. Again I found that there was no one that I could really give for reading, other than academic persons, who I found were eternally on the watch for new themes to research on. I found that many were unscrupulous enough to thieve any idea that came their way. Another thing that I found was that whenever I brought up my strange ideas in any debate, many of the self-conceited, shallow, formally qualified experts would go in for a frenzy of antipathy, and use very abusive terms to subdue me mentally. I found that they found it hard that persons who had declined the chance to become an empty expert like them should be able to debate on themes, which they considered to be exclusively within their domain. I have had the experience of one man telling me, "You should not talk on so many things." Another saying, " Who are you to write on such things. There are experts to talk about these things." Some abuses were of a worse quality. I actually found many of them of mediocre level of general awareness; yet there are many persons who were not formally qualified in India, who really had much more, common intelligence and social awareness, than these formally qualified experts. From 1999 onwards for at least 2 years, I send the original 33,000-word article to many publishers, by email. But the general comment was that even though there are a lot of original ideas in the theme, the whole writing was not in a publishable form. Yet, I did not get any time to work on this theme for a long time. In between, I wrote a few other books, and published them. Only in 2003 last, did I get some exclusive time to rework on this theme. And I gave an entirely new approach to the writing. And this is the result

French autocracy: In France, during the times preceding the French Revolution, there were terribly autocratic rulers. Louis XV was a typical example. It is said that it was Henry IV (1589-1610), the first King of the Bourban dynasty, who brought in the concept of absolute monarchy to France. Louis XII (1610-1643) consolidated the royal power. Next was the reign of the le grand monarque (the great Monarch) Louis XIV (1643-1715). This King believed with full conviction that he ruled by the Will of God, and his theory of Kingship was known as Divine Rights Theory. He proclaimed: L'elat, e'est moi- I am the State.

French revolution: The revolution in France that led to the overthrow of the Bourban dynasty in the last quarter of the 18th century. King Louis XVI was guillotined on the 21st of January 1793. A republican government was formed, but the whole experiment ended in disaster, with a reign of Terror being let loose.

Fuehrer: The German title of Hitler. He believed Germans to be the only pure Aryans in the world, and was contemptuous of all other races. Was the founder of the Nazi party, with which he got political power in Germany.

Genius: There are so many original inventions and discoveries that can be traced to an English mind. Even the Postal department, which nobody may think of as a discovery is actually a British invention. Also, the basic discoveries that led to the World Wide Web belong to a British mind.

Glasinost: Reforms brought by Gorbeshev in Soviet Union.

Gone with the wind: The seemingly immortal classic written by Margaret Mitchell. This story has the American Civil War as a background, and the protagonist is a woman with a very low level of ethical values, yet does create an emotional attachment with the reader. There is an unforgettable mood that pervades through the whole novel, and one can clearly discern the passing away of a way of life and society, in the tumultuous times, that moves the American nation.

Gravitational pull: The theory of gravity propounded by Sir Issac Newton, was to change the world. It send classical science to its heights, until the coming of the modern science, wherein it was found that the findings of Classical science was only an approximation of Modern Physics, when one is dealing value at human levels of perception.

Gujarati: State language of the State of Gujarat in India.

Guru: The title given to all spiritual teachers and to all teachers who assume a superior attitude in India.

Harappa: Site, in modern Pakistan, of an ancient town, connected to a period known as the Indus Valley Civilisation. The township is very impressive on account of the elegant planning, and systematic arrangement of houses, seen in this site.

Hebrew: The language of the ancient Judaic people. It is one of the national languages of Israel; the other being Arabic.

Hitchhiking: There are many other attendant reasons for the general lack of interest in giving lifts to another person on a hitchhiking basis in India.

Hitler: The German dictator, and founder of the Third Reich. Author of the book: Mein Kampf. He led Germany into the Second World War.

Hong Kong: A British colony on the fringe of the southern border of China, was ceded to Britain after China’s defeat in the Opium War. It was given as a lease for 99 years, which ended in 1997, wherein it was given back to China, by Britain. This giving back to China, may have been a very suicidal things for many citizens of Hong Kong, and many tried desperately to escape to Britain, which was not allowed.

Hookworms: Intestinal Parasites, that are common in persons living in Asian countries, including India. Yet, Britain is free from this, due to the rigorous care taken by the health authorities for many years. Yet, unbridled admittance to tourists from infected countries could be a source of infection. Though not of malignant affects, can severely affect a man's growth potential, and stamina.

Indian Administrative Service: The successor of the Indian Civil Service, which was the administrative framework of the British Administration in India.

Indian Civil Service: The Steel frame of the Indian Administration of British India. Reputed to be of high personal qualities, and honest, they administered India, providing it with infrastructures, which even now can compete with the modern public buildings in their longevity.

Indian Languages: The north Indian languages include Hindi, and allied languages, and are generally said to be related to Sanskrit, the language of the Vedic people; while South Indian languages are known as the Dravidian languages, and include Tamil, Kannada, Telugu and Malayalam, among others.

Indicants: This is a word that I picked out from the English dictionary to facilitate the fast conveyance of my ideas. The sense in which I use this word is dealt out in this book.

Indo Pak war of 1972: At that time, Bangladesh was East Pakistan. And the present day Pakistan was known as West Pakistan. The people of the two different parts were from different racial stock, and their languages were also different. Naturally, other nations with vile intentions could have easily used the opportunities offered to whip up emotional antipathy between the two constituents. Whatever it is, a war for freedom was fought by the East Pakistanis with active Indian help. The troops of General Niazi was surrounded by the Indian troops in East Pakistan, and Bangladesh was formed. There were allegations that General Niazi's own compatriots, being jealous of him, plotted his downfall, by not giving him adequate support from the base country.

Indus Valley Civilisation: The ancient human civilisation that existed along the hinterlands of River Indus. The prominent sites of this civilisation, that have been dug up include the Harappa and the Mohanjadaro townships.

Industrial Revolution: Term first used by French Economist Auguste Blanqu in 1837 to describe the change of manufacturing from household with simple machines to factories where power driven machines were in use, mainly in Britain. The sudden social change this evoked caused a lot of suffering to the working class, as they were exploited by the new rich industrial class. There was heavy shifting of population from villages to industrial towns, and consequent rise in the squalor and misery among the workers.

IPS: Indian Police Service, the successor of the Indian Police of the British Indian times. Senior most officials in the Police hierarchy.

Jalianwalabagh: This was one of the great blunders that one British Army General did. Yet, it is too early to say anything about General R.E.H. Dyer’s action on April 13, 1919 at Amritsar's Jallianwalla Bagh. Due to the passing of the Rowlett Act, by the British to combat subversive activities, large scale rioting was going on in Amritsar. The civilian administration found it hard to control the events, and abdicated power and the administration was handed over to the army. Military Act was proclaimed. One can only understand how soft an opinion the people had about a British Military Act, that they should assemble when one is in place. I don't think any Indian would dare to come out of his abode, if any such Act is proclaimed even by the Indian Police, let alone assemble in large numbers. I have been through the mental mood when the Indian Army or Police are given a free run. And one may remember that the next time Amritsar had to bleed was during the Blue Star Operations that the Indian Army conducted in the 1980's. And as an agendum I would add a small note: In the book prescribed as the standard textbook for 12th class in Central Board Schools, Modern India, it is written about Jalianwalabagh incident: Thousands were killed and wounded. Did thousands really die in that incident?

Jesus Christ: The personage on whose life and experiences, is the religion of Christianity based on. The concept of Christ or Saviour was already there in the ancient Judaic religion. Christians consider him as the Son of God, and also as the Saviour, promised in the Jewish Scriptures. They also believe that he would return on the judgement day, which is at the end of time. Yet, Jesus Christ, from the secular point of view may have been an anti-establishment propagandist, for he is seen to fight the vicious, corrupt officialdom and the other exploiters of society. Islam also considers Jesus Christ as a prophet of God, yet they don't agree that he has been the last prophet of god so far.

Kafka's Castle: The novel Castle by Kafka.

Kakki: A brown dress usually worn as a sort of uniform. In India, it is the uniform of the Police. Also, bus conductors and drivers also use it as a sort of statutory requirement. At the same time, it is also the trademark dress of lower menial class professionals, like sweeper, peons etc. In earlier time, the class of persons who were involved in toilet cleaning etc. were also made to wear a kind of Kakki. Though Kakki lends a feeling of authority to persons who belong to the government departments, to the private individuals, it is actually a symbol of degradation.

Kalari payattu: Martial Arts of North Kerala. It was a system of martial arts, which encompassed a lot of connected themes such as physical fitness, agility, mental alertness, reflexes etc. It consisted of a systematic study and practice of a variety of physical exercises, along with techniques of Martial arts, which included unarmed combat, break-falls, gymnastic feats, use of weapons such as knife (Kathi), sheild (Paricha), coiled swords (Urimi), swords (Val), stick (Vadi), cane (Chooral), club (Gadha) etc., locks, throws, rolling and other manoeuvres. The complete training included a through understanding of the various sensitive spots of the body, and also an understanding of the working of the bones and nerves, as understood in indigenous medicine. This system of Martial arts is known as Kalari payatt and the place where it is trained is known as the Kalari.

In the past centuries, there were a special class of persons who took this as a sort of hereditary vocation, and were engaged by the upper classes to settle their disputes through a sort of surrogate duels, in which these men fought with others of the same class. These fights were conducted as per systematic rules and procedures. And exactness and timing of offensive and defensive actions counted a lot on the outcome. These ankams may sometimes end in death of one of the contestants. It is possible that the practitioners of Kalari were actually a class of persons, who were at the beck and call of their feudal lords.

Karl Marx: The expounder of the Communist theory of Economics, and he also propounded the interpretation of history by the theory of Dialectical Materialism. His theory of value, by which the value of a product is the amount of labour put into it, may not survive much in the modern world, wherein automatic machines reduce the labour input to a negligible amount, and the concept of marketing actually gives the real market value to a product. His theory is actually a form of socialism, which was taken up by the revolutionaries, who took power in Russia and China, for its motivating and propaganda value, thereby giving this theory a grand entry into the world of politics and intellectualism.

Kashmir issue: On going freedom struggle, which more or less started the moment the British left India.

Kerala: Southern state in India, with the state of Tamilnadu on the east, and the Arabian Sea to the West. Consists of three erstwhile parts, namely Malabar, Cochin and Travancore. Trivandrum is the Capital. This name was recently changed to Triruvanthapuram. Malayalam, a Dravidian language, with a sprinkling of Sanskrit influence is the language here. In terms of vernacular literacy, this state stands the first in India. But, English capability is of a very vernacular nature. This state comes with a lot of hype, like that of liberated women etc. Also, someone in the bureaucracy with a very juvenile mind brought in the term, God's own country, for tourism propaganda purpose.

Konkan coast: North of Karnataka state in India.

Konkani: One of the Indo-Aryan languages recognized by the Indian government, It is spoken mainly in and in parts of Maharashtra and Karnataka and also in Goa.

Kowtow: The nine prostrations or the nine kissing of the ground in front of the monarch or feudal aristocracy that all tribute bearers or serfs have to perform.

Kshathriya: The caste that is second in rank as per the Vedic Aryan social hierarchy of chathurvarna.

Kurds: The ethnic population in Iraq fighting for Kurdistan.

Labour relations: Karl Marx tried to explain all social and historical incidences on the basis of relationship between the labour class and the proprietor class.

Looting of India: Generally all Indian Schools teach about the looting of India by the British. Here it may be remembered that there have been many temples in India, which had a plenitude of gold and other treasure. In the medieval periods, there were even periodic attacks by alien kings to loot this treasure. It is doubtful if the British did indulge in any such activity. People talk of the Kohinoor Diamond that is now in Britain. It may be remembered that Iran also claims it, as it originally belonged to the Iranian sovereigns.

Lord Macaulay: One of the main persons who were instrumental in bringing English to the hands of the common citizens of India. It began with his famous Minute on Education, which was passed by the 1835. His aim was to make a class of Indians, who were "Indian in blood and colour, but English in taste, in opinion, in morals and in intellect."

Madras Presidency: The British province in South India, with Madras as Capital. It may be understood that even during the British period, the actual local government was under the charge of an elected Indian Prime Minister and other subordinate ministers.

Mafia: The Italian feudal underworld clans, which migrated into USA. Their other nomenclature was Costa Nostra.

Maharashtra: State in India, on the west coast. Bombay is in this state. Marathi is the state language.

Malabar: The northern part of present day Kerala. This place was a part of the Madras Presidency during the British times, and till 1956, was a part of the erstwhile Madras State.

Malayalam: Language of Kerala, southern state of India. This language is a Dravidian language. Is highly feudal, with this aspect ever increasing.

Malayalee: Persons who have Malayalam as their spoken language.

Mansabdhari: The ranking given to the various officials in the Mogul empire.

Mantras: This term can mean both magical terms, words and sentences that can perform magic; or it can mean the sacred verses that one need to chant regularly to achieve a level of salvation from worldly pains.

Maradona: South American Footballer.

Marathi: State language of Maharashtra state of India.

Mars: Planet in the Solar System, next to earth, on the far side from the sun.

Maurayan Empire: Ancient Indian Empire, with Magadha as base.

Megalomania: Exaggerated feelings of one's own importance, and power. Generally all government officials in feudal language nations do have a level of this feeling.

Men of Honor: A true story of a Black man, who made it to become a US Navy diver, in spite of all odds against him, due to his racial background, at a time, when such careers were beyond a Blackman's dream of possibility.

Middle East: The geographical area that exists between Egypt and Iran, with both these nations, included.

Mogul Empire: The Muslim empire that ruled north India during the Medieval times. Founded by Baber, many famous Emperors like Akbar, Shah Jahan, Aurangazeb etc. are from this dynasty.

Mohenjadaro: Site, in modern Pakistan, of an ancient town, connected to a period known as the Indus Valley Civilisation. The township is very impressive on account of the elegant planning, and systematic arrangement of houses, seen in this site.

Nairs: The caste in Kerala, which may be identified as the Sudras of the Vedic Aryan social hierarchy of chathurvarna. Yet, in Kerala, the aryanisation of society took a long time, and even now, it is a more or less unsuccessful social program. So, when the aryanisation of society took place long after it was accomplished in the far north, there were many other castes that were already well entrenched in Kerala. As such, the Nairs ended up higher to them, as they were the serving class of the Brahmins, and the Kshatriyas. The Nairs were matriarchal in family set-up. And in south Kerala, they did practice something, which has been defined as polyandry. Yet, in actuality, it may have been more equal to a sort of one-night-stand. In that, they were mentally programmed to view the higher sections of society, that is, Brahmins and Kshathriyas with deep spiritual and material reverence.

Nambhuthiris: The Brahmins of Kerala.

Napoleon: Napoleon Bonaparte became the Emperor of France, during the period succeeding the French Revolution. He was an able man, and a grand administrator. Yet, he spent much of his time and intellect on wars and battles, when he could have conserved his very obvious talents, and genius for administrative improvements in his nation. He was defeated by the British, mainly due to, it is claimed, the overwhelming strength of its navy.

NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, an organisation formed by America and Britain to ward off Soviet Union's forays into Europe, by bringing many European nations under its umbrella.

Naxalbari: Actually the name of a small town in Bengal. This term is now synonymous with the communist uprising that commenced from here as a sharp reaction to the unendurable social repression that was (and is) going on in many areas in India. Since it was a communist uprising, the Chinese government supported it, and it is possible that the US government must have given moral support to its suppression. Actually, it should have been the other way round.

NCERT: The National Council for Educational Research and Training, of India.

Officer: I can't use the word Officer here, as it is very difficult to find persons who fit into the definition of an Officer in any Indian Government office. The concept that an Officer is also a Gentleman and that this combination goes together is unknown here.

Opium Wars: The war Britain fought with Imperial China in 1840, ostensibly for allowing right to trade opium in China, for the Europeans, but really for teaching the feudal aristocracy and monarch of China, the right manner of international intercourse; that is, to make them understand that anyone who comes into their presence is not a serf of the feudal lords or of their kings. The aristocracy of China wanted all British traders to perform the Kowtow, (that is the 9 prostrations or kissing the ground in front of the monarch or the feudal lord), which they invariably refused to do.

Oscar Wilde: One of the greatest of English Writers; many of his seemingly simple and causal writings do contain minute, immense and very intricate understandings on human liberty and human rights. Beyond all that, his control over English words, and phrases is, more or less, divine.

Pandemonium: The devil's court as per the English poet John Milton.

Pandora's box: Actually from the Greek mythology, wherein Pandora opened a box kept in her custody, against advice given to her, and many ills entered the world. In an allegory, the term means, something that is once set off or started, would go on creating more and more problems.

Parliament: The parliament of India has two houses, one upper and one lower. The upper one is called Rajya Sabha, and the lower one is the Lok Sabha. The latter is more powerful.

Parrys: Parrys of Madras is the second oldest company in India, which is still surviving. And is also one of the oldest surviving commercial establishments in the world. It was founded by Thomas Parry, a Welshman. East India Distilleries and Sugar Factories Ltd of London acquired it in the 20th century; so the name was EID Parrys. Now it is an almost wholly Indian owned company, with interests in many fields.

Pearl Harbor: The film on the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor that accelerated the American entry into

the war on the side of Britain.

People's War Group: The communist movement that is fighting against the feudal social set-up in the Indian State of Andhra Pradesh. It may be taken for granted that they would not be able to delete the feudal mindset, even if they do win the revolution; for, it has not happened in China. Recently US has acceded to Indian demands and declared it as a Terrorist organisation.

Perestroika: Reforms brought by Gorbeshev in Soviet Union, giving an impetus to revival of constitutional rights and freedom of citizens.

Pokran: India exploded a nuclear device at Pokaran, under a sarcastic code name of Buddha is Smiling.

Porus: The King who ruled the region between the Jhelum and Chenab rivers at the time of the invasion of the Punjab by Alexander III the Great (327-326 BC). Alexander gave him back his kingdom and thereafter he ruled as a subordinate of Alexander. He was later assassinated by a political rival.

Public servant: The British brought in the concept of a Government employee being a public servant and hence, accountable to the public. Earlier, there was no such concept even in theory.

Punjabi: The language of the State of Punjab of India. The Head turban wearing Sardars are from this state.

Queen Victoria: Queen of England, and also the Empress of India. One of her monumental achievements was the abolishing of the Slavery in Britain and in British colonies. Also, British navy was ordered to arrest any ship carrying slaves, even on the high seas. It was during her reign that the Indian possessions of the East India Company was taken over by the British Crown.

Rabies: Other name for Hydrophobia. Main source of infection is infected dogs, and other domestic animals, including cats. Highly malignant, and no known cure in allopathic medicine, once symptoms sets in.

Raja Ram Mohan Roy: The greatest of Modern Indians, who actively collaborated with the British, and also enduringly coaxed them to initiate steps to cease terrible social conventions like Sati, or the burning up of widows on their husband’s pyre etc. He was an ardent supporter of English language and wanted it to be taught to the Indians. He asked the Governor General to allot funds for "employing European gentlemen of talent and education to instruct the natives of India in mathematics, natural philosophy, chemistry, anatomy, and other useful sciences, --- "

Rajasthan: The desert state of India, on the western side. The various clans of Rajputs, were domiciled in this state. The so-called desert triangle of Jaisalmar, Bikaneer and Jodhpur are in this state. They were, in ancient times, on the fabled Silk route from China to far West; and were very rich cities, subsidising on the duty they extracted from the traders who went through their roads.

Rare taste of tolerance: Remember the Staines Murder Case, in which the Australian Missionary and his children were burnt to death.

Red Fort: The fort in Delhi, build by Shah Jahan, the Mogul Emperor. The fort is built with red sandstone, and hence it has a red colour.

Reservation: In India, all public employment opportunity, and also all seats in all educational institutions, owned by government, and all seats in all professional collages, are subject to a national policy of Reservation. Under this policy, a significant number of seats in educational institutions, and in public appointment vacancies, are reserved for persons belonging to the lower castes. At first, this policy was envisaged to continue only till 1965; but each time, the period got over, the policy was extended. Now it has come to pass, wherein no political party with eye on votes would dare to stop this practice, which has sorely putrefied the whole administrative systems, and also the educational system. The British policy of giving opportunity to the lower castes thorough communal rotation is at variance with the present policy of blind reservation, in that they, the British officers, existed as ideals for the whole personnel in the administration to follow and emulate. Also, the British did see that quality had an enduring premium in getting significant official postings. Now, the whole population is stuck with adoring eyes on film stars, and also TV serial actors, and directors, who though are good in their profession, are not really ideals in any way for the people to emulate on matters connected to morals, ethics, personal qualities, etiquettes, attitudes, or in the very understanding of what it is that makes a man a dignified personage.

Robert Clive: He was the person who laid the foundation of the British Empire in India. He came to Madras in the service of the East India Company at the age of 18, in 1743. In 1751, he had his first military success, when he showed his grit in the face of daunting hurdles. In 1756, he defeated the forces of Siraj-ul-daulah, the Nawab of Calcutta, after going there in a few ships, from Madras, through the Bay of Bengal. In this battle, he defeated an army with a numerical strength, which was approximately 10 times his own. It may be remembered that in all these contests, the major part of his forces consisted of native soldiers, trained in English systems. One can only discern with amazement at his feat, for all one need to see is the distance between Madras and Calcutta, and that too through the treacherous waters of Bay of Bengal. He was born on the 29th of September, 1725, at Styche, Shropshire, England. Was the first British administrator of Bengal, in East India. During his second tenure as Governor of Bengal, he made an administrative reorganization of this colony.

Roman Empire: The Empire with Rome as the Headquarters, which held sway over the whole of Europe, in the medieval periods.

Sahyadris: Mountain strip on the eastern border of Kerala, with the other side of the mountain slope on the state of Tamil Nadu. This mountain strip is actually a continuation of the mountain ranges called the Western Ghats, which extends from the middle of India down to the southern end.

Sati: The burning of women, along with the dead body of their husband. It was a tradition of long standing in India, till the advent of the British. And, one may find so many stories in the north Indian, and also in Rajput histories, wherein it is claimed that women jumped into the fire to retrieve family honour in times of defeat. It is difficult to check the veracity of the report of voluntary surrender to fire by these women. If that be the case, then the women of India must be of a very brave bearing. Knowing India, and Indians, I would vouch that almost all these cases would be forced burning of women. Many British officials with executive powers were severely affected by the sight of helpless women being burned, with the whole lot of people in the society in a mad frenzy to enjoy the spectacle. At least some did write to the Governor General, saying that they may be forced to intercede on behalf of the helpless women, ignoring the express command of the East India Company not to interfere in this religious/social activity.

Scheduled Castes and Tribes: The lowest castes of India, have been so named.

Schizophrenia: Considered to be a mental illness, with unknown causative factor. In this connection, I would like to add that persons like the controversial US Psychiatrist Thomas S. Szasz, has questioned the very premises of dubbing a man as mad. (htttp://

Security on the long travel routes: There was no security for travellers in pre-British India. For, one thing there was the Kali worshipping clan known as the thugge. They practiced the art of deception and treachery by using a very effective form of charming interaction. Another problem was the innumerable minute feudal lords and their henchmen who lined the horizon. The unwary traveller and trader are absolutely their prey. In modern India, more or less, a very similar group is now in existence. They are called the Sales Tax department. They wait with their vehicles, and pounce on unwary traders coming with goods, and then the only way to escape them is to part with whatever money they want; for they come armed with a book called the Sales Tax Rules, which the political executives have designed for their use as an offensive weapon. Here it may be remembered that during the British times, there was no Sales Tax. Now, it is on everything, with a lot of powers given to cheap men, who don such titles as Sales Tax Intelligence Officer etc. These people are now fabulously rich, like the ancient thugge lords of the pre-British times. When one experiences the attack of these guys, on the road, then one may very well imagine why the British wanted a standing army in India to protect their goods. For, actually Indians really need private armies to protect them from these crooks. And, it may be understood that the so-called Indian scholarly experts on these things would not have any understanding on what I have just said, about these crooks.

Sepoy Mutiny: The mutiny of the Indian soldiers of the East India Company, in 1857. This incident is treated by the Indian Historians as the First Indian Independence Struggle. It was crushed by the joint forces of the British army, and the Indian army of the East India Company. It was not a general uprising against the British. It was mainly a mutiny confined to the sepoys of Bengal army. It may be noted that the East India Company army consisted of three distinct groups: Bengal, Bombay and Madras. This mutiny led to the abolishing of the East India Company by the British Parliament, something they had been yearning to do for sometime.

Sepoys: Ordinary policemen and soldier, also called Sipay, in Hindi. They are kept at a very low servant class level, inside the department, and yet they are given the full freedom to mentally and physically assault any Indian Citizen. Generally, they are very crude persons, with negligible understanding of any of the niceties of the dignity and rights guaranteed to the citizens by the constitution.

Shah Jahan: The famous Mogul Emperor who built the world famous Mausoleum the Taj Mahal. His earlier name was Prince Khurram. He was the third son of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir and the Rajput Princess Manmati. He had an insatiable passion for building monuments, and his court was one of great pomp and splendour. He also had a collection of jewels, which is claimed to have been the best in the world. Other than Taj Mahal, the Red Fort and Jama Masjid in Delhi, India are his constructions.

Sir. Humphrey Gilbert: He was the first Englishman to try to establish a settlement in the New World. He took possession of the island of Newfoundland, in the name of his Queen in 1583.

Siraj-ud-Dawlah: The Nawab of Bengal, who was defeated by Robert Clive, in 1757.

Somerset Maugham: Famous English writer. Many of his short stories do have themes of English natives living in Eastern nations, and their social and emotional experiences.

South American Countries: Countries to the south of the United States of America. These nations were mostly, earlier colonies of Spain or Portugal. The population here is a mixture of the native population and the colonial Spanish or Portuguese. Since these nations never had British colonialism, they never had the occasion to build up enduring administrative systems that have any semblance of efficiency or public welfare. A continuing state of potential revolution and mutiny is ever present in the air.

South Indian Languages: Include Tamil, Kannada, Telugu, and Malayalam. They are generally known as Dravidian languages, though Malayalam does have a lot of Sanskrit. Actually, the Dravidian group of languages consists of 24 languages, spoken by around 200 plus million people of South Asia. Tamil is the language of Tamil Nadu state of India, while Kannada is the language of Karnataka state (earlier name Mysore state), Telugu of Andhra Pradesh, and Malayalam of Kerala.

South Kerala: The districts in Kerala, that come south of Cochin. Here, the British never directly ruled. The native rulers ruled, under the suzerainty of the British. So that, only the foreign affairs was affectively controlled by the British.

Sir.Francis Drake: English Privateer, and maritime adventurer, who broke the spine of the Spanish offensive on Britain, by his very daring destruction of the Spanish Armada in 1588. His whole career was marked by his audacious attacks on the Spanish ships bringing treasure from the Americas. He circumnavigated the world, and came back after an absence of 3 years, by which time everyone had given him up for the lost. He was knighted by Queen Elisabeth.

Sri Lankan issue: Once the English rule ended in Ceylon, the next logical thing to happen there happened. The Sinhala majority tried to bring in their language and culture, in an attempt to abolish English. This naturally arose the antipathy of the Tamil speaking part of the population. Naturally, in the early 80's, when Ceylon was seen to be a new Japan, in the Indian Ocean, due to its twinkling prosperity, evoked the envy of the neighbouring nations. One neighbouring nation made use of the opportunity provided by this situation, and with absolute malice, instead of helping to bring in sanity on both sides, fished in troubled waters. Now, things have reached a point of no return.

Sudras: The lowest caste as per the four varna or four caste social hierarchy of the vedic Aryan society.

Suzerainty: The British did not really rule the whole of India. Many areas were under their direct rule; yet there were areas where the ruler was still the native king. These kings had accepted the British as their suzerain. And a Resident was posted in these kingdoms to oversee the actions of the Kings. Despite all teachings to the contrary, these Residents were actually a good thing for the people of the Kingdom, for in his presence, the King could not act with arbitrary powers. It may be said that many social reformers strode on the stage of social limelight, because of the security posed by the presence of these residents, and the omnipresent stature of the British created Indian Supreme Court. Otherwise most of them would have been quartered or just left for the birds to feed inside frames that would be made to stand on a street corner.

Taj Mahal: The monument that Shah Jahan, the mogul emperor build in marble at Agra, near Delhi, in India, in memory of his beautiful consort, Mumtaz Mahal.

Taluk: The nation of India is divided into states. Each state is divided into districts. Each district is subdivided into Taluks, which are places with small geographical areas.

Tamil Nadu: Southernmost state in India, with the state of Kerala to the west. The Capital is Madras, recently renamed as Chennai. This state was earlier called the Madras Presidency during the British rule, and on Independence, it was called Madras, till it was renamed as Tamil Nadu. The language of this state is Tamil.

Tamil: The language of Tamilnadu state, in India. This language is the most ancient of the Dravidian languages.

Tantrik : Tantra is actually a philosophy of Hindu and Buddhist religions; it is actually a means to evoke and control certain gods, through the performance of certain ritual, along with the use of a Tantra, which is a sort of magical drawing. The ritual involve a level of penance and also the use of such things as Matysa, Mamsa, Madhya, Mudra and Mydhuna or Fish, Meat, Liquour, Dance and Sex. The person who has mastered the technique is known as a Tankrik. In certain ways, the tantrik philosophy of the Asian nations do have much in common with the methodology of witchcraft, as practised in Europe.

Terror: The reign of Terror that was the culmination of the French Revolution, in which many persons were simply guillotined on grounds of suspected disloyalty to the Revolution.

The British Colonies: The list of geographical areas, which were once under the British colonial rule, and generally benefited by this, is a very impressive one. USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, British South Africa (Cape Colony, Natal, Orange River Colony, Transvaal), India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka (Ceylon), whole of Malaya Peninsula starting from the Kingdom of Siam, Brunei (Borneo), Western Pacific consisting of Fiji, New Guinea etc., British West Indies, West African states of Gambia, Sierra Leone, the Gold Coast and Ashanti and Nigeria; Central African territories of Rhodesia and Nyasaland; East African territories of Somaliland, Zanzibar, Uganda, Kenya and Tanganyika; Egypt and Sudan (for relatively less period); Aden, Ascension Island, British Antarctic Territory, Cyprus, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar; Hong Kong; Malta, Maldives Islands; Mauritius; Persian Gulf states (sphere of influence); St. Helena, Seychelles Islands, Tristan Da Cunha Islands; Wei-hai-wei. And many other places. But what is more impressive is the way they could administer all these places in a most coordinated manner, in an age when computers were still beyond the realm of imagination. And that too without much wrangling, mutually antipathetic and self-destructive activities.

The God of Small Things: The book by Arundhati Roy, which won the Booker Prize in 1997.

The Southern Version: In Malayalam, the lowest indicant word used in regard to women are Nee for You, Aval or Oal for She, Oak, Avalkku for For Her, and Avalude or Oalude for Hers. These words exist in sharp contrast to the upper indicant words. But the Southern Version of Malayalam, possibly due to the influence of the early Christian Church, which may have tried unconsciously to reduce the effect of these words, have invented a lot of words which exist above the lowest levels, and yet below the highest levels. Words such as Thaan, Yeyaal etc. for You, Pulli, Pulllikkari etc. for She, and its derivatives for Her, Hers etc. have given more freedom to the southern girls and women, to work and function in a more liberated manner than their Northern counterparts. This is very much reflected in the more daring the Southern girls display in social and professional fields.

The three freedom struggles: The Khilafat and non-cooperation Movement (1919-22); The second Non-Cooperation movement (12th March 1930); Quit India Resolution (8th August 1942).

Third World: Developing nations

Thiyas: An indigenous caste of north Kerala, now declared as Other Backward Caste. They had connection with the affairs of the coconut trees. During the period of the British, many of them improved supremely on account of the English education that they received and went in for public appointments in various levels. They generally had a matriarchal social structure.

To Sir, With Love: A famous movie starring Sydney Poitieor; the story is about a Black teacher from US coming to the UK to teach a group of highly unmanageable children in an exclusive school. The way he manages to change them from derisive kids to adoring students is a theme of enduring inspiration.

Travancore-Cochin: The Malayalam speaking state that came into existence immediately after the Independence of India. Before independence, these places were ruled by their native kings.

Untouchables: The lower castes of India. They were not allowed to come openly into the public roads, take water from a well used by the others in the society, come within seeing distance to the higher castes etc. In fact, till the advent of the British, there was no thought in the minds of the hundreds of towering, intellectual luminaries of India, that there was a case of absolute social deprivation going on in the very front of their eyes.

Valluvarkkavu: Is a temple in Wynad district of Kerala state, in India. The nearest town is Manantody. During the tribal festival that used to take place annually, the serfs, who were legally free, but socially and mentally bonded, were transferred from the ownership of one feudal lord to another, for the next year's paddy field harvesting and allied activities. The language used to them could easily keep them in a state of juvenile incapacity.

Varma: The Kshathriyas of Kerala. They are numerically very insignificant in Kerala.

Veda: The four sacred books of the ancient Vedic period Aryans of north India. They include the Atharva Veda, Sama Veda, Yajur Veda and the Rig Veda.

Voltaire: French philosopher; Voltaire is his penname.

Waterloo: The battle, in which Napoleon was defeated once and for all.

What happened in France? The autocratic rule of the kings was found wanting, so the Revolution came; it was found wanting, the terror was enforced; the terror was terrible, so people opted for Napoleon; Napoleon could enthuse the public only with a perpetual state of military adventurism, so he had to fight with the British; the kings returned, but again, the dissatisfaction remained, and so the commune came; thus it has always been a social and political history of swings of mood, with an unending passion for a ideal situation, which even now is seen in French politics. The French were among the first to accede to the German military machine of Hitler, and possibly to discern much positive aspects in their regimented social life style.

Winston Churchill: British Prime Minister, who led the British during the Second World War. Brilliant orator and writer with deep insight.

Wynad: This is a hilly district in Kerala, the southern state in India. It was a forest filled district, when India acquired independence in 1947. Now, the forests have been cleared and the tribal population, which lived there thrown into penury. A lot of monkeys, porcupines, elephants, deer etc. were simply killed and either eaten or laid to waste, as a means of clearing the place. This district had been a centre of armed communist rebellion, which paradoxically was suppressed with the silent support of the popular, well established communist parties of Kerala. One of the most striking things that happened in this rebellion was that the young, youthful leader of the rebellion, by name Varghese, was taken alive, taken to a remote forest area and killed by the police. It so happened that the policeman, who was ordered to shoot, tried to dissuade his superiors, by questioning the propriety of the action. He was threatened with dire consequences and made to shoot. This incident happened around the year 1970. After many years, this incident came to light when the policeman who did the shooting, after retirement took the pain of admitting his crime, and requesting for an investigation as to how he could be pressurised to do such a thing. And like all things in India, the investigating department took pain to heap the main charge on him.

Yellow streak: An early European concept that persons who have Asian and other non-white blood, may be having a lesser capacity in many aspects including intelligence, physical strength, daring, courage etc.

Yoga: A Hindu religious philosophy, as well as a well-defined programme of physical manoeuvres to help the body regain its lost splendour, and an associated programme of meditation.

Zamindars: The feudal lords of India.